Prolapsed Cloaca

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Introduction

A cloacal prolapse is a serious problem requiring immediate veterinary care. Trauma to the internal organs that are prolapsed through the opening can seriously affect the bird. It is seen in cockatoos and the smaller breed birds like budgies and cockatiels. It requires immediate replacement of the prolapsed organs.

Cause

Straining due to parasites, abdominal masses or tumors, chronic egg laying, abnormal eggs and poor nutrition are all predisposing factors. Determining the exact cause can be
difficult.

Symptoms

Birds that have this problem might exhibit depression, straining, lack of droppings, fluffed appearance, and poor appetite. Sometimes the only symptom you notice at home is blood in the droppings. These symptoms occur in other diseases, so the diagnostic approach has to be thorough.

Diagnosis

In many prolapsed birds there is a history of recent egg laying. During the physical exam internal organs (intestines or reproductive usually) are apparent at the cloaca. When diagnostic tests are used their main indication is to find the underlying cause to the problem in order to prevent recurrence. These tests include fecal exams for parasites, x-rays for abdominal masses pushing on the abdominal contents, and blood panels to determine general health and organ function.

Treatment

Birds with prolapsed cloaca’s require emergency care. Many are hypothermic and require immediate warming. Others can be dehydrated so warm fluids are also administered. Antibiotics are usually administered to prevent infection in the affected organs.

Once a bird is stabilized the prolapse is replaced back into the abdomen. The sooner the better because internal organs that are exposed to the environment are easily traumatized and infected. Amputation could be needed on infected tissue or tissue that has inadequate blood supply.

In some cases we anesthetize the bird to allow muscle relaxation and subsequent easier replacement of the affected organs. This patient is in a special anesthetic chamber allowing us to safely administer the anesthetic.


This prolapse has been present for several hours. The coloration tells us it is healthy enough to allow replacement back into the abdomen. It will be gently cleansed and flushed with sterile saline. It is an internal organ and requires delicate handling.


The area is lubricated copiously with K-Y jelly and the prolapse is gently manipulated back into the abdomen using Q-tips. This process takes several minutes because the organ is swollen and predisposed to tearing.


After it is replaced special sutures (at the arrows) are used to prevent it from coming out again. They are put in tight enough to keep the organs inside but loose enough to allow droppings to pass. These sutures will be kept in for at least several days to allow the prolapsed tissue to heal.

Prevention

There are factors involved with this problem that we have no control over. Factors we can control are good nutrition, a clean environment, spaying birds that are predisposed to egg binding or are excessive egg layers, minimizing obesity and stimulating exercise.

Careful daily observation of your pets daily habits will help you recognize the early symptoms of this disease. No matter what the problem, any time your pet bird shows any symptoms of a disease, no matter how subtle, it is considered significant and requires immediate veterinary care. This is because birds are masters at hiding illness, and we are all too often presented with sick birds in advanced stages of disease. Our ability to return these birds to normal health is diminished because proper care has not been given early on in the disease process where it is most beneficial.