Long Beach Animal Hospital Informational Articles

Ferret Liver Cancer

Ferret’s are highly prone to several serious diseases. In addition to insulinomas and adrenal gland disease, they are also prone to cancer. This page shows a ferret that has a liver cancer.

Graphic photos from surgery are on this page.

Symptoms

Some ferrets do not show any symptoms while others exhibit lethargy and weakness and a distended abdomen. There might be a decrease in appetite and weight loss. Symptoms alone are not enough to diagnose liver cancer.

Diagnosis

Like most diseases, the diagnosis of liver cancer is made based on history, examination findings, and diagnostic tests. In this specific case an exploratory surgery was performed to verify the diagnosis and determine the extent of the problem. an ultrasound could have been performed also. Since ferrets are prone to so many internal organ diseases, and since exploratory surgeries can be performed rapidly and yield a large amount of information, it is common to perform surgery instead of ultrasound. Some ferrets are diagnosed as having cancer when an abdominal surgery is being performed for other reasons (adrenal gland diseasespayinsulinoma). This is especially true for the ferrets that are not showing any symptoms of this disease.

Blood samples are an aid in the diagnosis and can also be helpful to rule out other important diseases that might be occurring simultaneously. Our laboratory specializes in working with ferrets, and has a special blood panel for them.

We are commonly asked how the heck do you get blood from a ferret. They are certainly one of the more difficult patients to obtain blood from. This is where the expertise of our nursing staff comes into play. a very small needle is used because the veins are so fragile. This ferret is having its blood taken from a vein on the side of its rear leg.

This test tube is filled with fluid that was taken from a ferret that had a distended abdomen due to liver cancer. analysis of this fluid in conjunction with other diagnostic tests gives us a clue as to its cause.

A useful tool as an aid in this diagnosis is radiography. It gives us a clue as to the presence of fluid along with abnormalities of the internal organs.This ferret is laying on its right side, and has a distended abdomen due to a large liver and fluid in its abdomen. It also has a large spleen. In addition, there are 3 metallic clips visible just under the kidney from a prior surgery for adrenal gland disease. The clips were used to stop bleeding when the diseased adrenal gland was removed. The identified organs are: Liver (L), Stomach (S), Kidney (K), Spleen (SP) and Bladder (B).

a view of this same ferret while it is on its back shows the large area of the liver and the large spleen. Look carefully at the spleen because it is folded over on itself in this picture and is larger than it first appears.

Whenever we suspect cancer we take a radiograph of the chest to look for evidence that the cancer has spread. We use the chest for this radiograph because the small blood vessels that are located around the lungs act as a filter to trip cancer cells that have spread. The black background of the lungs allows us to visualize these cells that are white in color.

In this same ferret as above we are looking at a side view of its chest with the head to the left. The windpipe (W) goes from left to right, the Heart (H) is in the very center, and the air filled Lungs (Lu) are above the heart. To the right of all of these structures you can see the large white area that denotes the large liver.

Surgical Treatment

The above information gave us reason to suspect a high probably of liver cancer, so an exploratory surgery was performed. The owner was aware of the poor prognosis in this case but wanted to know for sure what was going on.

Several precautions must be taken when this surgery is performed. Ferrets can easily become hypothermic due to the anesthesia and the fact that their abdomen will be open during the procedure. They can also become hypoglycemic due to the stress of the procedure. Special precautions are taken to help mitigate these problems.

The following area contains graphic pictures of an actual surgical procedure performed at the hospital. It may not be suitable for some children (and some adults also!). 

Brandi is a high risk anesthetic patient. In addition to the usual precautions we take for hypoglycemia and hypothermia, we have to be concerned with the induction of anesthesia. a special induction chamber is used for Brandi to breathe in the anesthetic gas and slowly go to sleep. You can see her doing what ferrets do best when they fall asleep-curl up.

Once she is relaxed enough a small tube is put into her windpipe to allow us to give her 100% oxygen along with precise amounts of anesthetic. In this view you can see her breathing tube on the left. She has been clipped for surgery and her final prep is about to begin. The distended abdomen is obvious. The pink bandage on her left front leg is where her intravenous catheter (IV) is placed so that we can accurately give her fluids.

We made a rapid entrance into her abdomen due to her anesthetic risk. What we encountered was a abdomen filled with blood. In this picture there are intestines visible on the left with abdominal fat on the right. Encountering this much hemmorhage at the start of the surgery is not a good sign.

The tissue was very delicate and bled easily when touched. In this picture we are using a laser beam to cauterize bleeding blood vessels.

When the bleeding was relatively under control we slowly exteriorized the severely diseased liver, seen here under Dr. P’s fingers. The spleen is starting to become visible under the surgeon’s hands (arrow).

A closeup of this liver lobe shows how enlarged and hemmorhagic it is. For comparison purposes, a normal liver is below this picture of a diseased liver.

Notice the tremendous difference in color and size in this normal liver lobe.

The liver was so delicate (the medical term is friable) that it bled significantly when touched. We were unable to get an adequate biopsy due to this problem We are using the laser beam again to control the bleeding we caused.

After we checked the liver we exteriorized the spleen. It is enlarged and hemmorhagic also. Go back up to the x-ray and now see if you can visualize the full size of the spleen.


A very important organ to check during and exploratory surgery is the adrenal gland since adrenal gland disease is common in ferrets. Brandi had her left adrenal gland removed previously. We know this because we did it and because of the hemoclips on the x-ray we showed you above.

Prognosis

Brandi survived the surgery (we are not sure her mother has recovered yet). Unfortunately, several months after this surgery we euthanized her because her problem had progressed significantly.

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Anesthesia

One of the most important tools available to veterinarians to thoroughly and painlessly treat pets is the advent of modern day anesthetics. These anesthetic agents allow us to sedate and anesthetize a wide variety of animals with negligible chance of serious side effects.

Modern anesthetics allows us to safely anesthetize high risk animals like this duck with a fractured wing. You can see her surgery in our Wildlife Care page.

The lack of significant complications from anesthesia is due to a combination of expertise, thorough pre-anesthetic testing, and state of the art anesthetic and monitoring equipment. We are equipped to anesthetize any pet from a finch that weighs 15 grams (it takes 454 grams to make up one pound), to pets that weigh several hundred pounds. We are also particularly proficient in anesthetizing senior pets and pets with medical problems like liver and kidney disease.

The most important part of monitoring your pet while it is under anesthesia is our nurse technician that is with your pet the whole time it is under anesthesia

The goals of anesthesia are to minimize anxiety and eliminate pain. In addition, from the surgical point of view, anesthesia allows profound muscle relaxation. This is helpful in every surgery because the procedure will go quicker and incisions can be made smaller when the muscles are relaxed. In certain types of surgery like fracture repair, this muscle relaxation is crucial for success.

It is normal for you to have concern if your pet is about to undergo a procedure that requires anesthesia. Because of this fact, we invite you to be a part of our anesthetic team. Your primary responsibility is to let us know of your concern. You will have access to your doctor to discuss any of your concerns and to set up a custom protocol for your pet, taking its specific needs into consideration. Only when you are comfortable with the situation will we proceed any further. Also, to alleviate your concern on the day of actual anesthesia, we will call you immediately after your pet wakes up, if you so desire. Please leave a number where we can reach you on the day of surgery.

Pre-Anesthesia

A pre-anesthetic exam is performed just prior to anesthetizing any animal. We are looking for any problems, particularly with the heart and lungs.

We perform this exam just prior to anesthetizing your pet

Even our more unusual patients get an exam prior to surgery

One of the precautions we take to minimize the risk of anesthesia is to perform pre-anesthetic diagnostic tests. A pet can pass its pre anesthetic physical exam and still have significant internal problems, so it is important that we perform more than just a physical exam. This is because animals cannot tell us of their problems, have high pain thresholds in comparison to people, and have defensive mechanisms allowing them to hide symptoms. Pre-anesthetic diagnostic tests are designed to alert us to internal problems that are occurring without any symptoms.

We prefer to perform an exam and blood panel about one week prior to surgery. We send this blood panel out to our lab for a thorough analysis of important organs like red blood cells, liver, and kidney.

 This report is showing a kidney problem

 

In an emergency, or when we cannot send the blood out to our lab several days prior to surgery, we can perform an analysis in our hospital by our blood analyzer

We can have this report in 30 minutes. This is how it checks the CBC (Complete Blood Count). It also gives us a biochemical report like the one above that checks the internal organs like the kidneys.

Those pets that have infections (especially tooth infections) might be put on antibiotics ahead of time. They make pets feel better, and help support internal organs.

Older pets, or those with medical problem,s are given intravenous (IV) fluids prior to and during the anesthetic procedure. Giving fluids prior to the surgery greatly reduces anesthetic risk. This is particularly important in older pets and those with kidney or liver disease. Most pets that have significant dental disease will also be given IV fluids.

IV fluids are one of the most important treatment modalities we have for a wide variety of medical situations in addition to surgery

Pre-Anesthetic ECG

For elderly pets, those with heart murmurs or heart conditions, we perform an electrocardiogram just prior too surgery.


This one has a potential problem that needs to be addressed

Blood Transfusions

For those pets that are anemic, or in surgeries where we anticipate significant blood less, we give whole blood before, during, and after the surgery. This is important in surgeries like splenectomies.

This is what anemia looks like in a CBC from our in house blood machine

Dog do not have iso antibodies, so in an emergency, and if the dog has never received blood before, we can give blood from most any dog donor. It is not our preferred way of doing a blood transfusion.

Before we give the blood we prefer to do a cross match

We use whole blood that is specially prepared and stored

Injectable Anesthesia

Injectable anesthetics are used for many purposes. One of their primary uses is to sedate pets before giving the actual anesthesia (called pre-anesthetic). By sedating ahead of time we dramatically minimize anxiety, cause a smoother recovery, and minimize how much anesthetic we need to administer during the actual procedure. In addition, some injectable anesthetics minimize vomiting, a common problem when waking up from anesthethesia.

Injectable anesthesia is given intravenously, and rapidly induces relaxation so that we can put in a breathing tube

Injectable anesthetics are also used to give complete anesthesia for short periods of time. This is used for C-sections and minor surgical procedures. Injectable anesthetics are ideal to sedate a pet for radiographs (x-rays).

As new anesthetic agents evolve, the trend is towards using injectable anesthetics more and more for complete surgical anesthesia. They are very effective, very safe, and allow for rapid recovery from anesthesia. They also protect the environment because there are no anesthetic gases vented into the atmosphere.

Gas Anesthesia

The mainstay for general anesthesia is gas anesthesia because it is very safe and highly controllable. We use a safe and effective gas anesthesia  called Isoflurane. It is so safe it can be used in creatures as small as tiny birds.

Lisa is watching carefully as this budgie is being anesthetized for a surgery to remove a growth on its cloaca

Gas anesthesia requires specialized equipment and training. Several precision components are used to administer and monitor anesthesia:

Oxygen

All pets put under gas anesthesia are given 100% oxygen from the moment they are anesthetized until they wake up, dramatically increasing the safety of the procedure.

We have a special machine in surgery that generates 100% oxygen

As a backup,  oxygen is stored in large tanks under high pressure. The oxygen in these tanks is delivered to the anesthetic machine via special piping throughout the hospital. This allows us to have anesthetic machines in several hospital locations.

A pet can be brought into radiology after its surgery and still be kept under gas anesthesia, while the surgeon reviews post operative radiographs to ensure everything is in order. This is especially helpful when orthopedic surgery is performed.

Keeping a pet under anesthesia is important in orthopedic surgery to make sure the plates, pins, or screws are properly placed and in alignment. If they are not, this can be corrected before a pet wakes up completely. 

Endotracheal Tube

Oxygen is routinely delivered to your pet by a breathing tube (endotracheal tube) in its windpipe. It is the preferred method to administer oxygen because it is very efficient, will prevent any vomitus from entering the trachea (vomiting rarely happens because of fasting and pre-anesthetic sedation), and allows us to gently inflate the lungs during surgery so that they work at maximum efficiency. Besides oxygen, the anesthetic gas (Isoflurane) is also administered through the endotracheal tube. Medications can even be administered via this special tube.

 

The endotracheal (ET) tube is placed directly into the windpipe

This x-ray shows the breathing tube (follow the arrow) as it passes over the tongue and down the trachea (windpipe)

We can easily breathe for your pet and inflate your pet’s lungs by gently squeezing the bag connected to the tube, monitoring the amount of pressure we are exerting with a gauge on the anesthetic machine. Each size and species of pet requires a different sized endotracheal tube. The tube is not removed from your pet until it is literally waking up. This ensures that the swallowing reflex is present, and your pet is now safely able to breathe on its own.

Vaporizer

An instrument called a precision vaporizer is used to deliver the Isoflurane anesthetic gas within the oxygen. It is a very precise instrument allowing us to make fine adjustments in anesthetic level. Without this vaporizer we would not have the wide safety margin that we currently enjoy.

We can precisely and easily change the level of anesthesia during the procedure as needs change

For most surgeries we administer the anesthetic at a setting of 1-3 %. This small percent of anesthetic, added to the 100% oxygen the pet is breathing, is all that is needed to achieve complete surgical anesthesia. Before the surgical procedure is finished the anesthetic is lowered before it is turned off completely. As the surgeon is finishing the procedure your pet is in the beginning stages of waking up. This decreases anesthetic time,  another way we minimize anesthetic risk.

Monitoring

Our surgeon is one of the best monitors, because he/she is literally visualizing the blood in the circulatory system. Any change in the blood is readily noticed because pets that are breathing 100% oxygen should have bright red blood.

In addition to all the high tech monitoring equipment we have, our anesthetist is hands-on in monitoring your pet. Here Brianna is using  her stethoscope to check the heart, even though the heart monitor behind her is doing the same thing. 

After listening to the heart she keeps a close tab on oxygen flow and the anesthetic level of our precision vaporizer

We keep detailed records of fluid rate rates, anesthetic and oxygen levels, and physiologic parameters, during the surgery

We keep a close tab on the heart with the stethoscope on all of our more unusual surgical patients

Since our small patients can easily become hypothermic due to the anesthesia and surgery, we monitor temperature continuously.

Surgery-GPigWaterBlanket

Surgery-GPigWaterBlanket1

All of our patients, especially the smaller ones like this guinea pig, are kept on warm water water blankets to prevent hypothermia before during, and after any anesthetic procedure.

Anesthetic Monitor

This highly accurate and sensitive monitor gives us detailed information on your pets physiologic status while under anesthesia.

It is a sophisticated instrument that gives us an early warning sign of impending problems with your pet’s physiology

It is calibrated prior to surgery to ensure accuracy

Watch it in action, and see if you an figure out what all these numbers mean

We sometimes use other instruments to monitor you pet while it is under anesthesia, even though the Surgical monitor does this also. It pays to be redundant. The two most important additional instruments we use are:

Pulse Oximeter (Pulse Ox)

The portable pulse oximeter is an instrument that measures the oxygen saturation of you pet’s red blood cells (to be more specific, its hemoglobin). It is an extremely sensitive instrument that gives us an indication of problems that may be arising long before your pet suffers any ill effects. In addition to measuring oxygen saturation, it measures heart rate, pulse character, and respiration.

This instrument does its magic by measuring the hemoglobin that is oxygenated, and comparing it to the hemoglobin that is not oxygenated. It does this by shining a light on an artery, and then measures how much of this light is absorbed. It gives us an answer in PaO2– the partial atmospheric pressure of oxygen.

This Guinea Pig has the pulse oximeter sensor attached to his foot in preparation for surgery

The Pulse Oximeter measures oxygen saturation of 92%  and a heart rate of 87 beats per minute (BPM). Both of these are normal on this pet, which is a pot bellied pig.

The pulse oximeter has several different types of sensors that can be attached in various locations depending on the procedure being performed.The pulse oximeter can also be used on pets that are not anesthetized. It is useful for pets that are having difficulty breathing (dyspnea) from many different causes. It is also used to monitor pets that are in a state of shock. One of the most common reasons for pets to be presented to us in a state of shock is from trauma, especially being hit by a car (HBC).

Blood Pressure Monitor

We also monitor the blood pressure when pets are under anesthesia for the longer surgical procedures. This is done with our anesthetic monitor.

Blood pressure can also be checked manually at any time

Our hypertension page has a video of the doppler blood pressure monitor in action when we use it in an exam room.

Capillary Refill Time

To complement these high tech methods of monitoring, our anesthetist technician uses several hands-on techniques as a backup. One of the easiest of these is called capillary refill time (CRT). By pressing on the mucous membranes in the mouth, and noting how long it takes for the blanched area to turn pink again, we get a basic assessment of your pets cardiovascular status. A normal pet’s pink color returns within 2 seconds. This technique is used in other situations besides anesthetic monitoring. It is especially helpful when a pet is in shock or is dehydrated.

Capillary refill time on this pet is less than one second

Pain Medication

We complete the anesthetic process by giving your pet a pain injection before it wakes up from the anesthetic. Since the gas anesthesia has a small amount of residual analgesia (ability to kill pain), the pain shot kicks in as the gas anesthetic is wearing off. This allows for a very smooth and pain free recovery. We monitor this closely, and will give additional injections as needed. This pain injection will keep your pet calm its first night home from any surgery. We will also send you home with oral pain medication also for several days.

Local Anesthesia

Another excellent way to prevent the pain encountered when your pet first wakes up is to use a long acting local anesthetic at the incision site. We administer it prior to completion of the surgery so it is in full effect when your pet wakes up.

We use the long acting version of this drug which eliminates pain for up to 8 hours

We even have a local anesthesia patch that is used in some cases to bring long term relief for several days if needed.

Pain Patch

We also use Duragesic (Fentanyl) patches for general pain control in the more serious cases. It is preferable to apply it 12 hours before the surgery for maximum effect postoperatively. It provides pain relief for 3 days. It is important to make sure that no children or other pets are allowed to contact the patch in any way. Bring your pet back to us for proper removal and disposal.

The patch is applied in different locations depending on the surgery. Wrapped around one of the legs and between the shoulder blades are common locations. If we put it on the leg it is covered with a bandage. It will be bandaged for protection and to minimize the chance of contact with other pets and children. Please return in 3 days for us to remove it and dispose of it properly.

One of our nurses is applying it in this picture using gloves to ensure she does not come into contact with the active ingredient.

We will commonly staple the patch to the skin if we put it between the shoulder blades

Our surgical patients are monitored closely immediately after surgery. We will verify the pain medication is working, and that there are no ill effects from the anesthetic. It will also allow your pet to completely wake up and walk normally in a controlled environment where it cannot hurt itself.

Our technical staff monitors your pet post operatively until we are certain it is ready to go home

Long term pain control at home is also important during the next several days. We will routinely send you home with an anti-inflammatory medication or pain suspension for long term pain control. The two most common medications we use are Rimadyl and Torbutrol suspension.

Laser Surgery

Even though it is not an actual pain medication, using our carbon dioxide laser when indicated during a surgical procedure dramatically minimizes pain because it decreases inflammation, swelling, and cauterizes nerve endings. By using the laser and stopping the pain cascade before it even begins there is a dramatic influence on decreasing post operative pain.

This video shows you how we calibrate and set the laser for a neuter surgery

Companion Laser Surgery Post Op

For additional pain control we use our  Companion Laser on the incision line before your pet wakes up from anesthesia. This decreases post operative swelling and pain, and makes your pet much more comfortable.


You get to wear cool glasses when we use this laser

Watch it in action

Returning Home after anesthesia

When you bring your pet home after anesthesia it is helpful to follow some common sense suggestions:

Keep contact with other pets and children to a minimum for at least the first 12 hours. Confine it to an area where it cannot hurt itself  because it may not be steady on its feet for up to 24 hours. It might be groggy the first night due to the pain injection it was given.

Use pain medication as prescribed and keep your pet in a warm and quiet area. You can spend time giving unlimited TLC

Even though your pet has probably been fasted for the anesthesia, feed it only a small amount of food and water when first returning home. Give it more later if it eats well and does not vomit (emesis). Most pets return to a normal appetite within 24 hours. If your pet has not fully recovered from the anesthetic by the next day then please call our office.

Please call us in the evening if you have any questions when your pet returns home from surgery or any anesthetic procedure.

To learn much more about how we do surgery at the Long Beach Animal Hospital please visit our Surgery Page and our Diseases Page.

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Spay Service- Pot Bellied Pig Long Beach CA

Long Beach Animal Hospital offers pot bellied pig spay services for pig owners in Southern CA

Spaying a pig has similarities to spaying dogs and cats, but not a lot! It is an interesting surgery because of the unique anatomy of the pot bellied pig. They have miles of intestines and a uterus that’s very long because of the large number of piglets that are born at one time.

Graphic surgery photos on this page.

On the day of surgery we need your pet in the hospital between 7:30 AM and 9 AM. Please take away all food and water when you go to bed the evening before surgery, and do not give your pig anything to eat or drink the morning of surgery. It will go home in the late afternoon the day of surgery. Please call our office at 4 PM for pickup time, you will be given post operative instructions then.

This is Elly, a young lady who will be our patient today.


Anesthesia

Pre-anesthetic preparation is important in every surgery we perform, no matter how routine, because surgery is not an area to cut corners. All of our spays receive a physical exam prior to surgery. Only if they pass this exam will we draw a small amount of blood for an in-hospital pre-anesthetic test. When everything is to our satisfaction we will administer a sedative. This will calm the pet down and make the administration of the actual anesthetic, along with post operative recovery, much smoother.

Once a pet is anesthetized, prepared for surgery, and had its monitoring equipment hooked up and reading accurately, the surgery can begin.

Pigs need to be monitored carefully for overheating during anesthesia, which is the opposite of most anesthetized animals. They produce more body heat relative to other animals because of their large muscle mass. Pigs do not sweat or pant, they need to be in contact with something cool to rid of excess body heat. Because of this we constantly monitor their temperature during and after the surgery.

We keep a close tab on important physiologic parameters for all of our surgeries. Monitors like this give us an early warning of an impending problem.

Surgery-Monitor


Surgery

The following area contains graphic pictures of an actual surgical procedure performed at the hospital. It may not be suitable for some children (and some adults also!).

Every major surgery we perform begins with proper patient preparation. This will help prevent infection, which could be a serious complication in this surgery because during a spay we have an opening into the abdomen.


The surgeon makes an incision near the umbilicus and extends it 3-5 inches in the direction of the tail (the tail is at the left in this picture). We try to make our incisions as small as possible to minimize anesthetic time, decrease post operative discomfort, and minimize the healing time.

Our surgeon is using a #10 blade to start the incision


The tissue just underneath the skin is called the subcutaneous layer. It consists mostly of small blood vessels, and of course fat (this is a pig after all).


The final layer we need to cut before we are actually into the abdomen is called the linea alba. It is an area of muscle in the center of the abdomen that is covered by a tough layer of tissue. This is the most important layer resutured at the end of the surgery because it is the only layer strong enough to hold the abdominal muscles together to prevent a hernia.

In this picture the linea is being held up with a forceps, and a scalpel blade (held upside down) is being used to make the incision.


Scissors are commonly used to extend the linea incision and facilitate the removal of the uterus. Care has to be taken not to puncture internal organs like the bladder.

The scissors is sharp and all we have to do is slide it along the tissue for a proper cut


Buried within the abdominal organs and abdominal fat is the uterus. A special instrument called a spay hook is sometimes utilized to gently pull one of the uterine horns through the abdominal incision.

This hook allows us to keep the skin incision small


The uterine horn is traced into the body cavity until the ovary is found. It has to be gently teased from its location near the kidneys in order to be able to pull it out through the abdominal incision. In older pigs this part of the procedure is much more difficult.

This ovary (arrow) has several follices forming, which is the bumpy appearance.


The blood supply to the ovary is extensive, so a special technique is utilized to prevent hemorrhage. This technique involves the use of special clamps. The smaller arrow on the top points to the ovary, which will be removed along with the clamp. The 2 larger arrows on the bottom point to two sutures used to tie off (called ligation) the blood supply to the ovary.

This area is called the pedicle, and will be replaced back into the abdomen when the surgery is complete.


When both ovaries have been removed the body of the uterus is now ligated.

You can see the first suture being placed at the top of the screen.


Another ligature is placed around the body and the uterus is cut away


The linea alba is now securely resutured. Stainless steel sutures are sometimes used because they are very strong, cause minimal tissue reaction, and show up vividly on an x-ray of the abdomen .


The subcutaneous layer is now closed with a type of suture that dissolves over several months.


The last layer sutured is the skin. Sometimes we put the sutures on the outside, which means they have to be removed in 7-10 days. We call this a bikini scar.

It is at this point that we will give a pain injection, which might make this pig groggy for the evening.


Postoperative Care

Most pigs go home late in the afternoon on the day we perform the surgery. They might be groggy from the pain injection which is advantageous because they will remain calm and allow the healing process to start immediately. By the following morning the grogginess will have worn off.

When you first get home do not be in a big rush to feed. After 1 hour at home offer a small amount of food and water. If the appetite is good, offer more several hours later. Do not over do the feeding the first night because anesthesia can make them nauseous.

Keep contact with children and other pets to a minimum the first night, and restrict activity for several days to allow the incision to heal. Try not let your pig go outside until healing is complete.

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Neuter- Pot Bellied Pig

At the Long Beach Animal Hospital use of the laser is mandatory for all neuters, and the reason will be obvious when you read this page.

Sometimes people get a jaded mindset when it comes to routine surgeries like neuters, that are performed by the thousands, especially at low cost spay and neuter clinics. It is a major surgery, and we treat it as such at the Long Beach Animal Hospital, which you will learn about in this page.

One of the more interesting surgeries we perform is a pig neuter, know medically as an orchectomy. It has similarities to neutering other animals, particularly dogs, yet it is not the same thing as a dog neuter. You should not try this surgery at home….

Several days prior to any surgery please bring in your pet for a preanesthetic exam and blood panel to confirm your pet is ready for anesthesia. At that time one of our doctors will go over any questions you have.

On the day of surgery we need your pet in the hospital between 7:30 AM and 8 AM. Please take away all food and water when you go to bed the evening before surgery, and do not give your pig anything to eat or drink the morning of surgery. It will go home in the late afternoon the day of surgery. Please call our office at 4 PM for pickup time, you will be given post operative instructions then.

Our surgeon will call you after the surgery is complete and your pig is awake. It can go home in the late afternoon the day of surgery unless instructed otherwise. Please call our office at 4 PM for pickup time, you will be given written post operative instructions then. We are open in the evening if you need to pick up later.

This is Bailey, our victim (oops, we mean patient). Isn’t he just cute enough to hug!

Anesthesia

Pre-anesthetic preparation is important in every surgery we perform, no matter how routine. All of our neuters receive a pre-anesthetic test several days prior to surgery.

Bailey is a good patient and held still for his blood sample

When everything is in order we will give a sedative. This will calm Bailey down and make the administration of the actual anesthetic, along with post operative recovery, much smoother. Once a pet is anesthetized, prepared for surgery, and had its monitoring equipment hooked up and reading accurately, the surgery can begin.

All of our surgery patients are given a thorough exam well before surgery

Listening to pig heart with the stethoscope
Our exam continues when our patient is brought into surgery

Pigs need to be monitored carefully for overheating during anesthesia, which is the opposite of most anesthetized animals. They produce more body heat relative to other animals because of their large muscle mass. Pigs do not sweat or pant, they need to be in contact with something cool to rid of excess body heat. Because of this we constantly monitor their temperature during and after the surgery.

Surgery-Monitor

We keep a close tab on important physiologic parameters for all of our surgeries. Monitors like this give us an early warning of an impending problem.

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Once our surgeon has scrubbed up and is  in sterile gown, gloves, and mask, the surgery begins

Our patients are closely monitored by our staff during surgery

Surgery

The following area contains graphic pictures of an actual surgical procedure performed at the hospital.


Bailey is being readied for surgery. His anesthesia has been given and we are ready for our surgical prep.

We make our skin incision just in front of the scrotum. We used the laser to make the incision because of its tremendous advantages.

There is no bleeding from the the skin incision when we use the laser. This is an advantage for the surgeon and the patient.

The testicle bulges out of the incision cover by its internal layers called tunics

The testicle is carefully exteriorized giving us access to the base where the blood vessels reside

Special suture is used to tie off the blood supply before we remove the testicle

The blood supply is so extensive we use more than one strong suture. These sutures will dissolve over the next several months.

As a comparison, this is what a testicle looks like when the laser is not used. This is the old fashioned way, and we do not use this method any more due to the bleeding and post operative pain and inflammation.

The sutures we place in the skin are removed in 10 days.

Bailey is a little groggy right after the surgery, but at least he is feeling minimal pain. This is because we use the laser and we gave him post-operative medication for pain.


His post op temperature is normal, so he is ready to be moved to recovery

We keep a close eye on our patients as they are waking up from anesthesia

Postoperative Care

Most pigs go home late in the afternoon on the day we perform the surgery. They might be groggy from the pain injection which is advantageous because they will remain calm and allow the healing process to start immediately. By the following morning the grogginess will have worn off.

When you first get home do not be in a big rush to feed. After 1 hour at home offer a small amount of food and water. If the appetite is good, offer more several hours later. Do not over do the feeding the first night because anesthesia can make them nauseous.

Keep contact with children and other pets to a minimum the first night, and restrict activity for several days to allow the incision to heal. Try not let your pig go outside until healing is complete.

Laser Surgery

Using the laser has many advantages over using a scalpel blade. These include negligible bleeding during the procedure and post operative pain. Our Laser Page has detailed information on the use of the laser for various surgeries.

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Bird X-Rays

The first series of radiographs are before we had our digital radiography. As you scroll down and come to the rad’s taken by our digital machine you will see the increase in quality.

This first x-ray is from a normal cockatoo that is laying on its side, with the head towards the right. To see a diagram that labels these structures click here, then return for our x-ray tour of birds.

This is another normal cockatoo, this time it is laying on its back. The important organs have been labeled. Note the hourglass appearance of how the heart and liver connect.

These first two x-rays show a bird that has an abdomen filled with fluid. You cannot identify individual organs when the fluid is this extensive. Unfortunately, this is a serious condition.


This is an x-ray of a bird with an enlarged liver. The hourglass appearance between the heart and liver is not present.

This patient has lead toxicity (click here to learn more about lead toxicity). The arrow points to lead particles in the gizzard (stomach). Do you see the fractured leg also? The next x-ray shows the lead and fracture from a different view.

This same bird is now laying on its back, and emphasizes the importance of analyzing two views of an x-ray. The fracture (arrow) in the tibiotarsal (shin) bone is more apparent now. The other arrow points to the lead particles in the gizzard. Now go back and see if you can find the fracture in the view above (hint-it is in the leg to the left). This type of fracture can be handled with a splint.


Here is another bird with lead particles in the gizzard. You know how to recognize it now without an arrow.

The arrow is pointing to a metallic object that is in the bone marrow of the femur (thigh bone). Can you guess what this object is? The next x-ray shows you a side view of this object.

Birdrad-intraosseus

This is called an intraosseus (IO) catheter. It is used to give fluids, especially during an emergency. Birds have very thin walled veins and sometimes they do not hold up when we need to administer fluids. The IO catheter remedies this problem

The following radiographs are from our new digital radiography machine. You can click on them to enlarge.

Egg bound

Birdrad- egg

Fish hook in crop

Birdrad- fishook

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

Barium in crop

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

BB in skull

Birdrad-BB

Hawk with BB’s in wing

Birdrad-digitalhawkpellets

Detail of digital radiography in a normal bird

Birdrad-digitallateral

Birdrad-digitalvd

Fractured tibiotarsal (shin) bone

Pelican Fx

Fish hook in gizzard (ventriculus)

Birdrad-gizzardfishook

Heron neck

Birdrad-heronneck

Repair of fractured ulna in red tailed hawk. The metal object is an IM (intramdeullary) pin. The fuzziness around the pin is normal healing bone, called callus

Birdrad-impin

Egg bound bird with egg almost out (in the cloaca)

Birdrad-lateralegg

Fracture repair using external pins

Birdrad-pinrads

Birdrad-pins

 

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