Category: Dogs

Hip Dislocation

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On occasion a dog or cat will dislocate its hip. This page shows the treatment of a poodle mix that fell while running, and is now completely lame on its rear leg.

Diagnosis

The diagnosis in this case is made with x-rays after an initial examination. The exam gave us clues that the pain was caused by a dislocation. When we gently extended the rear legs (depending on the type of dislocation) the dislocated leg appeared shorter than the normal leg.

This x-ray is of a dog with a dislocated hip. The ball of the left femur is completely out of the socket. Ligaments and the joint capsule have been torn for this to occur.

 

Medical Correction

Some pets with dislocated hips can be corrected without the need of surgery. Whether or not this occurs depends on the extent of the damage, especially to the ligaments, tendons, and joint capsule.

This pet was anesthetized and the head of the femur was gently placed back into the socket. It was securely taped so that the femur was held firmly in the socket. a special type of sling was applied to keep the head of the femur (the ball) pushed back into the socket. This method is not always successful, but it is worth trying to prevent surgery.

 

 

A radiograph is taken immediately after application of the splint to be certain the femoral head is still in the socket. One week later we repeated the x-ray to be certain it was still in place. This splint stayed on for 3 weeks, and this pet eventually healed completely.

 

Pain medication will be given to minimize discomfort. This dog will need to be confined and have minimal activity for several weeks.

Surgical Correction

In many cases we have to resort to surgery to correct the dislocation. When the hip is replaced in these dogs it does not stay in the socket.  We have pictures of the surgery

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Forearm Fracture in a Dog

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It is not uncommon for a dog or cat to fracture its forearm. The two bones that are usually involved are the radius and ulna. Depending on the severity of the fracture, it is either splinted or surgery is performed to stabilize the bones with plates or pins. In small breed dogs, due to their bone anatomy and blood supply, and splint will not suffice, and a plate is needed surgically for proper healing.

Radiograph

This pup had a mild fracture of the radius and ulna (forearm). Since young animals heal rapidly, and because the fracture was relatively stable, a special type of padded plastic splint was used to stabilize it. It will stay on for 4-6 weeks.

Splint

After the pup is sedated an anchoring tape is applied to prevent the splint from sliding off.

A heavy layer of cotton is wrapped around the leg, and the plastic splint is placed along the bottom of the leg outside this cotton layer.

Several layers of gauze are tightly wrapped over the cotton and plastic splint, and the initial anchoring tape is adhered on top of this gauze. This prevents the splint from sliding down.

A final layer of tape is wrapped over the gauze. This helps keep it dry, adds to the stability, and identifies this as a girl dog!

We can trace the progress of healing on a different dog (his name is Kaiser-he is a large Doberman puppy) with a radius and ulna fracture, by taking x-rays at 3 week intervals. This first x-ray shows Kaiser’s fracture, which he obtained by running into a table.

Here is Kaiser after his splint was applied. He is hiding his face because we used pink tape instead of blue (hey, that’s all we had at the time).

Three weeks after the splint was applied a routine x-ray was taken to assess healing. Both the dark areas and white areas at the fracture site are normal stages in the healing process.

Six weeks after the fracture (and not a day too soon for his dad), the bone has not only healed, but it has remodeled making it smoother and anatomically more correct. This bone will continue to remodel for many months.

Surgery

Surgical correction of a radius or ulna fracture frequently involves plates.  In toy and small breed dogs a splint will not suffice. Plates are mandatory to prevent a malunion or nonunion, which could lead to amputation. It is a specialized surgery requiring special equipment and expertise, along with meticulous placement of the fractured pieces.

If you look at this view of Pebbles’ fracture it looks like a splint could be utilized for stability.

On this view of the same bones the severity of the fracture is obvious. Surgery is needed due to the amount of displacement at the fractured edges and the fact it is a small breed dog.

Here is a view of the bones after a plate has been applied surgically. As you can see from the fractured ends, the alignment is perfect.

Another x-ray gives you an indication of the size of the plate from the top. The amount of cotton padding around the splint can be visualized also.

During and immediately after surgery we will give pain medication.

A splint is put on for additional support, comfort, and to prevent Pebbles from chewing at the surgical site. Pebbles will need to wear this splint as additional support until the fracture heals. This will take up to several months.

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Ear Cleaning

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One of the most important things you can do to keep your pet’s ears clean and healthy is to clean them periodically, especially if they have been prone to infection. This page will show you the proper technique using a medium sized dog as an example. The technique for a cat is similar, the only major difference is in restraint. No matter which species you are restraining, pick a room that is quiet and free of small children. Please let one of our nurses give you an actual demonstration of this technique to develop your confidence.

Before we institute any cleaning of problem ears it is important to make a diagnosis. Not every case of ear infection is caused by ear mites, as many people are prone to think. Ear infections are commonly caused by bacterial infections, hypothyroidism (low thyroid), and allergies. We have found a consistent cause of chronic ear problems and infections is due to a food allergy, which is why we recommend Hill’s z/d, the gold standard for this type of food.

Canine Restraint

Depending on its size, put your dog on a table so that it is approximately chest high. Gently hug your pet under its neck with one of your arms, and put the other hand on the back of its head if necessary. Be patient, yet persistent. If your dog is small you can use the cat restraint technique.

Hugging your pet with your left hand under its chin gives you control and flexibility as to how much restraint is needed.

Feline Restraint

Wrapping your cat with a towel is a good way to restrain it for ear cleaning. In essence you will be wrapping it like a burrito. For cats in general the less restraint the better- let the towel do the work.

Put a large towel on a table and put your cat towards the front end of this towel.

Bring each side of the towel over the cat and leave only the head and tail to stick out

Bring the back, unfolded section of the towel over the front just up to the back of your cat’s head.

Finish the “burrito” by wrapping the towel under each side of your cat. The only thing sticking out of the towel at this point is the head.

Hug your cat gently to you with one hand and you will have your other hand free. Besides cleaning ears this restraint technique enables you to administer oral or topical medication.


Cleaning

Never put anything in your pet’s ear canal without proper restraint. As a general rule you should clean the ears by letting the cleaning solution bring the infection and discharge to the outside of the canal to be wiped away. You should not put Q-tips into your pets ears unless we tell you to and you have been shown the proper technique, and your pet is adequately restrained. Q-tips can damage the sensitive tissue that lines the ear canal. Also, an ear drum can easily be ruptured by placing objects in the ear canal, especially if the ear has an infection.

This is a typical picture of what might be encountered in an ear that needs cleaning.

The first thing to do is use a gauze to wipe away discharge that is on the surface.

Gently pull up on the ear and partially fill the ear with the cleaning solution. By straightening out the ear you allow the cleaning solution to flow down the ear canal to where the infection and debris are located.

After the canal had been partially filled massage the base of the ear canal very gently. Most pets find this part soothing.

Let your pet shake its head if it wants to. Then use a gauze to soak up the fluid that comes out of the ear.


Instill several drops of the actual medication we prescribe after the cleaning solution is out of the ear and the ear is relatively free of discharge. Most pets do fine with daily cleaning and medicating, your doctor will let you know if it should be done more or less frequently than daily.

Now is the time to reward the cleaner and cleanee for a job well done! If you think that was tough, how would you like to restrain this pet and clean its ears? The hugging under the chin technique doesn’t always work on a 300 pound tiger!

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Canine X-Rays

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A few of the many radiographs we take each month. Click on some of them and they will enlarge. You can see the detail available with our Digital Radiography.  Click on them and most will enlarge.

All of these metallic objects (see arrows) are stainless steel sutures in Spunky. He is a Schnauzer that has gone through 3 abdominal surgeries. Two have been to remove bladder stones, one was to remove something he ate (you wouldn’t want to know what it was) that got lodged in his stomach.

 
The round white thing on the far right is a bladder stone in a different dog (urolithiasis). It is a Digital Radiograph, so click on it to enlarge. Do you see anything else in this radiograph?

The diffuse white area in the center of this dog’s abdomen is an abdominal tumor. Ultrasound will help pinpoint the exact location and will also enable us to perform a relatively simple biopsy.

 

That very large and rounded object in the chest of this dog is the heart. This is called cardiomegaly, and is due to heart failure.

This is what it is supposed to look like

Radiographs-VDChest1

Radiographs-VDChest

Severe Hip Dysplasia

Radiographs-HipDysplasia

Screw holes that remain after a plate to fix a fractured tibia (shin bone) is removed

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

After surgery to lengthen the ulna. Damage to the radius has caused a deformity in this growing dog, and lengthening the ulna helps straighten it out.

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

Normal knee joint

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

This dog had chronic diarrhea that was finally diagnosed when an x-ray was taken. Those are 3 pennies in the rectum at the far right of the x-ray.

 

This Irish Setter has a condition know as bloat (GDV- Gastric Dilatation Volvulus). The large dark and circular area in the middle of the x-ray is a twisted and distended stomach. This is a very serious condition that requires immediate care.

Here is GDV one on a different dog. You can see the greatly distended stomach along with all the gas (dark areas) in the intestines on the right of the radiograph.

This is what a fractured femur (the one on the left) looks like months after it has healed

How many puppies can you count in this pregnant dog ? Do you want to see how a C-Section is performed?

With our Digital X-Ray you can see more detail on a different dog

The arrow points to arthritis in the spine, known as spondylosis. This is a common problem in many dogs as they age. We have numerous medications at our disposal that will help alleviate this painful affliction.

In this Digital Radiograph the spondylosis is so severe that nerves to the urinary bladder are not working well. The large round object on the right is the urinary bladder filled with urine because this pet cannot urinate properly. This is a painful condition that can lead to secondary infection and severe kidney problems.

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Cancer

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The scientific word for cancer is neoplasia, meaning new growth. In reality, it is an abnormal growth of cells that interferes with an organ’s ability to function, resulting in a degree of failure in that organ. Some of these abnormal cells break off from the organ and spread to other organs in the body, causing them to fail. This process is called metastasis, and is the hallmark of malignant cancer.

The enlarged sublumbar lymph nodes in this dog’s abdomen are the whitish areas under the circle. A cancer called adenocarcinoma spread to them through the process of metastasis.

This is what severe bone cancer looks like on the front foreleg (radius and ulna) of a dog. It is a malignant cancer called osteosarcoma. Compare it to the normal radius and ulna below to see the signifiant bone destruction. 

A normal radius and ulna on a radiograph

 

Cancer it is not one disease, has many different causes, and can affect every organ. This makes it quite a challenge to diagnose and treat. Even though the cause is not known in many cases, we do know of major factors that predispose pets to getting cancer. An example is squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in white cats that are exposed to the sun. We tend to see cancer more commonly in our geriatric patients.

A major predisposing factor is dogs, cats and rabbits that are not neutered and spayed when they are young.  Their chances of getting breast, testicular, and prostate cancer increase significantly when they are not altered at an early age. The following pages have detailed information on this:

Reproductive Cancers

Dog Spay

Dog Neuter

Cat Spay

Cat Neuter

Rabbit Neuter

Rabbit Spay

Dog and Cat Non-Reproductive Cancers

Intestine

Kidney

Liver

Lymph node

Mammary (breast)

Mast cell

Spleen (hemangiosarcoma)

Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)

Ferrets

Adrenal disease

Insulinoma

Liver

Rodents

Mammary (breast)

Ovarian

Reptiles

Tegu oral tumor

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