Category: Avian

Budgie Growth Removal

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This little guy had a growth near his cloaca that weighed almost as much as he did. We removed it because it was getting larger and interfering with bowel movements.

Birds this size have little blood, so bleeding control (hemostasis) is critical. We removed it using the laser, taking advantage of its tremendous bleeding control, the lack of post operative inflammation, and the pain control it brings by cauterizing instead of cutting nerves.

The lack of bleeding during the surgery when using the laser means the surgery goes faster, and anytime there is less anesthetic time needed to complete a surgery this is a major advantage in a pet this size.

Graphic photos on this page.


Birds tend to be more sensitive to anesthesia than most mammals, so special precautions are taken to minimize the risk. We always perform pre-anesthetic diagnostic tests prior to surgery to make sure there are no internal problems.


We use special monitoring equipment during the surgery


Lisa is just starting the anesthetic process. This bird will also have hot water bottles, and a hot water blanket to lay on, to keep it warm during the surgery. Small animals lose body heat rapidly during anesthesia and surgery, so we want to stay ahead of the curve and prevent it from happening. 

This is a sterile procedure, and we treat it like any other surgery using aseptic technique. You can see our laser unit in the background. 


The growth is large for a bird this size, and has probably been there for months. It is starting to interfere with bowel movements at this point. Luckily it was benign.


Our patient anesthetized, and just before starting our final prep


Once our patient is draped, and under the proper plane of anesthesia, we start the laser surgery


Half way through and there is no bleeding at all


No suture are needed, and healing will be complete in a few days, with no pain or post operative swelling

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Macaw Cataract Surgery

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With the significant help of our favorite veterinary ophthalmologist, the late Dr. Paul Jackson, along with our favorite human ophthalmologist, Dr Art Giebel, we removed a cataract from a Macaw.

This page has graphic surgical pictures.


Birds tend to be more sensitive to anesthesia than most mammals, so special precautions are taken to minimize the risk. We always perform pre-anesthetic diagnostic tests prior to surgery to make sure there are no internal problems.


We use general anesthesia because this is delicate surgery and there can be no movement of our patient


We use special monitoring equipment during the surgery in all our recent surgeries


In addition to the substantial surgical expertise of our surgeons, this surgery is not possible without special equipment, especially a dual surgical microscope.


Our patient is anesthetized and ready for surgery


Dr. Paul and Dr. Art work together as a team during the surgery


A microscopic incision is literally made into the eye near the cornea. The cataract is emulsified just like in people. A new lens is not put in, unlike in people.








Our surgery team, from left to right-

Art Giebel, MD

Carl Palazzolo, DVM

Paul Jackson, DVM



Our patient ready to go home


A healed eye

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Fractured Bird Leg

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Due to the fact that birds have small, and sometimes hollow bones, it is not unusual for them to break them due to trauma. Falling off a perch, being injured by another animal, or even being stepped on by its owner are some of the more common causes of a fracture. Sometimes there are underlying problems causing the bones to be weak and susceptible to fracture during normal activity. The tibiotarsal (shin bone) is the one most commonly fractured.

This page shows a tape splint on a simple fracture.  This splint is light and stable, perfect for a small bird like a budgie (parakeet) or a cockatiel. At the end of this page you will see fractures that need surgery, with a link to seeing the full surgical repair of a fractured femur (thigh bone) in a rabbit at our hospital.


Most birds that have broken legs will not bear weight on the affected leg. Most fractures can be palpated by one of our doctors, although a bone can be fractured without any obvious evidence during examination. Taking a radiograph is one of the best methods to determine if a fracture is present.

Do you see the fracture in this view?

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The fracture is more apparent in this side view. This emphasizes the importance of taking two views. This fracture is classified as a mid shaft transverse fracture of the tibiotarsal bone.



Most tibiotarsal bones heal well when splinted with special tape. We usually keep the splint on for one month, although this varies. On occasion we need to perform surgery for proper stabilization. This is more common when there is a fracture of the femur (thigh bone).

The first step in splinting this cockatiel fracture is to remove all the feathers over the fracture site. Plucking them allows them to grow back faster compared to cutting them. You can see the bruising that is apparent on this birds leg directly over the fracture. Birds routinely show bruising of many colors, which is sometimes misinterpreted as gangrene by inexperienced people.

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The first layer of tape is applied directly to the skin. We use a type of tape that will cause minimal irritation to the sensitive skin during the healing process and when we remove it after the bone has healed.

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These tape strips are molded over the leg to provide the beginning stages of stability. Several pieces are used to cover above and below the fracture

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The next layer of tape is waterproof and much stronger. Several strips are used to provide the necessary stability.

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When all the layers of tape are applied a hemostat is used to gently mold all the layers tight up against the bone. Now the fracture site is stable and the bone can begin the healing process.

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One our doctor feels the bones are lined up properly and the fracture site is stable, the excess tape is trimmed.

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The splint is trimmed for easier mobility. With the fracture stable this bird will feel substantially better, and start bearing weight very soon. It needs to remain quiet and not climb or play excessively during the healing process. The foot should be checked daily for swelling and the splint should be kept clean and dry (of course it is OK to sign the splint). Weekly rechecks by one of our doctors will ensure the splint is secure and the foot is not swelling.

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This budgie also had a broken tibiotarsal bone that was repaired with a tape splint


He was grateful we took away his pain and started playing with us right away



For comparison purposes this is a cast put on a wiggly 6 year old boy named Mike. As you can see, one of his fans is signing the cast while he enjoys some R & R. Your bird needs the same kind of attention during its healing process. Make sure it gets plenty of rest and good nutrition, and remove perches initially so it can not climb around the cage. Putting something soft in the bottom of the cage is also needed.

Surgical Fractures

Some tibiotarsal fractures will not heal with a tape splint.

These are typical of  bird fractures that require surgery

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This is not a bird tibiotarsal fracture. It gives you an idea of how we might use pins on a bird

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We would like to use plates on birds fractures like other animals. Bird bones are too thin, and the plate is too heavy, to use in a bird.

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This is a rabbit femur fracture


The appearance of the fracture after repair


Click here if you want to see the full surgical repair of this rabbit fracture

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