Category: Pot Bellied Pigs

Symptoms of Diseases

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Here are 5 basic areas you should observe on a daily basis.

Eating

Watch your pets daily eating habits for :

  • difficulty chewing
  • odor
  • swelling
  • pawing at its muzzle

Since dental disease is so prevalent please follow the link to learn how this can affect your pet’s eating.

Breathing

When your pet is at rest count the number of times it breathes per minute (watch it for 15 seconds and multiply that number by 4). A typical dog or cat breathes 30-40 times per minute, although this can be variable based on breed and external temperature. The important thing to watch for is an increase in its respiratory rate over a period of time. Trend this on a piece of paper weekly so you can see this trend as it gets going. This can be a subtle but very important parameter to measure since an increase here can be for many serious reasons.

Urination

Look for any changes in the following:

  • Urinating more often or in greater amounts than normal
  • Urinating small amounts frequently
  • Straining to urinate
  • Inability to urinate
  • Licking at genitals

In female dogs it can be difficult to assess some of these parameters, so try to pay close attention when she squats to urinate.

Defecation

Any significant change here is important:

  • Continual diarrhea of any type
  • Straining to defecate
  • Licking at anus
  • Scooting
  • Any blood on feces

Walking

Obvious lameness is readily noticed. Also look for a pet that is leaning more towards one leg or the other, tires easily after walking or playing, is slow at getting up after resting, or is reluctant to go up or down any type of elevation like stairs or jumping into a vehicle.

Now that you have observed your pets daily habits lets look at how you can look for problems that are not so apparent by going to our In Home Exam page.

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Arthritis

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One of the most insidious diseases we encounter in animals is arthritis. It was not long ago that pets were euthanized because they seemed “old” based on their symptoms of poor appetite, decreased activity, and lethargy. In reality they were not “old”, they had arthritis, and acted like they were old because they were painful.

Today we can treat their arthritis and give them a new lease on life and lead a great quality of life for many more years. All animals get arthritis, we most commonly see it in dogs and cats. This page will emphasize it in dogs since it is most prevalent in them. Cats get arthritis also, and we wil discuss how they differ from dogs in this disease.

Many of our pets are stoic, and can have a disease process brewing on the inside yet show no external symptoms. As the disease progresses eventually the symptoms appear, and we are presented with a very ill pet that seemingly became sick overnight. The reality is that the problem was present for a long period of time. It went unnoticed until your pet went rapidly downhill, when the bodies mechanisms for compensating and coping with the disease have become overwhelmed, and your pet is in a debilitating condition. At this point the disease process is so well entrenched that the prognosis for recovery is poor.

This concept applies to arthritis in dogs and cats.With our new digital radiography that gives us much more detail, we are diagnosing it earlier. Coupled with substantially improved treatments, we can successfully treat these arthritic and painful animals, and give them a vastly improved quality of life for many more years.

This digital radiograph of the abdomen shows the tremendous detail we get with digital, and how we can see the internal organs in the abdomen. Click on the photo above if you would like to learn how to read a radiograph (you do know the 5 radiographic densities don’t you?).

What’s even better is the fact that some of these new treatments do not involve the use of drugs. We have a multi-system approach to arthritis due to its chronic and debilitating nature, and the fact we strive for treatment modalities that involve minimal use of long term drugs.

Here is a summary of how we approach this important problem. We will talk about these treatments in more detail later in this page:

If your pet is overweight, a common problem, modifying diet and feeding habits to bring it back to its fighting weight can minimize the symptoms of arthritis. This common sense, inexpensive, and drug free option, seems to escape many people.

Hills-MetabolicMobility

Hill’s makes a prescription diet called Metabolic + Mobility that addresses obesity and arthritis at the same time. It is the food of choice for overweight dogs that that are also arthritic.

Arthritis tends to be a disease of the aging. Older pets have different nutritional needs that need to be addressed. These needs cannot be addressed by going to a pet store and listening to the advice of some amateur nutritionist behind the counter trying to sell you the latest gimmick in dog food marketing. It comes after you discuss your pet’s individual lifestyle needs with your veterinarian, your pet is given a thorough physical exam, and your veterinarian has blood panel and radiographic tests on your pet. Only then will the full picture of your pets needs be understood, leading to a custom treatment protocol specific for your pet.

Chondroprotective agents called neutraceuticals can help in some cases.  These are the chondroitin sulfate- glucosamine products available everywhere, including Trader Joe’s at the checkout stand. They are not a panacea, and its important to take a critical look to see if they are working in your pet’s case. Sometimes the placebo effect seems to be transmitted in our minds to our pets, and we do not have an objective standard to determine if these medications truly help. Fortunately they do not seem to hurt, so we can achieve or first goal of “do no harm” as veterinarians.

NSAID’s  (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) are a tremendous advancement in the treatment of arthritis. Non-steroidal means they do not contain cortisone, which was one of the primary drugs used to treat arthritis in the recent past. The NSAID’s are better at treating arthritis when used judiciously to maximize their good effects, while minimizing their potential for side effects. Every pet reacts differently, so if one NSAID does not seem to work, we will try another. In cat’s we use this drug sparingly if it all due to their inabiliy to tolerate their use long term. The NSAID’s we use in cats are called Meloxicam, Metacam, or Onsior.

Veterinary Neuronal Adjustment (VNA or VOM) is a tremendous treatment modality that uses the bodies natural healing processes without the use of any drugs. It involves stimulating the autonomic nervous system (specifically the sympathetic branches) and provides substantial pain relief. We have been using VNA at the Long Beach Animal Hospital for over 15 years. This is especially important in cats, since they do not tolerate NSAID’s well for long periods of time.

Therapy Laser brings an additional and highly effective treatment modality that again does not involve the use of drugs. This laser penetrates the hair and skin and goes right to the problem area to decrease inflammatory mediators. We recently updated our equipment to include a new therapy laser called MLS that treats using two different wavelengths.

Acupuncture can also be used to augment all of the above therapies. Dr. Seto and Dr. Yamamoto are both certified in acupuncture in animals. Cats do well with acupuncture.

Stem cell therapy is starting to be used, utilizing your dogs own fat cells. It is still in the early stages, and treatment is not long lasting. If this area of treatment evolves and becomes more practical, we will utilize it.

Exercising your pet in the cooler part of the day, without excess trauma like jumping for long periods of time, will keep your pet flexible, the joins warm and lubricated, and keep its weight under control. If your pet is not afraid of water, letting it swim in a shallow area is a great way to enhance mobility.

In older cats that are prone to arthritis there are several common sense things to do:

Raise the water and food bowls slightly. This is because cats get arthritis in the elbow joint, and elevated bowels allow them to feed with the elbow in extension, which is less painful. It also gives cats with hip and stifle (knee) pain are more comfortable sitting position when feeding.

Have several litter boxes around the house, make sure they do not need to go up the stairs to access them, and if the litter pans have tall sides see if they can be cut down for easy access.

If your cat likes to perch on a window sill or lay on your bed make sure it does not need to jump to access these areas, and set up some steps for easy access.

We will use the words arthritis and osteoarthritis (OA) interchangeably, because they are the same thing in regards to the pain your pet is feeling and how it is treated.

Please be realistic about the fantastic claims that abound on the Internet for cheap treatments that will help your pets arthritis. These treatments have show to be nothing more than effective marketing. This disease is complicated and serious, and needs more than some supplement you purchase online.

What is Arthritis?

Dogs are prone to many different types of bone problems. This page will focus on the arthritis that tends to occur in dogs, especially as they age. Arthritis literally means inflammation of the joint, but the term is used more generally to describe several different processes. These include degenerative joint disease (DJD), infectious joint disease, immune mediated joint disease, and crystal-induced joint diseases. Many people use the term arthritis synonymous with osteoarthritis (OA), a complex, slowly progressive, and degenerative arthritis that is characterized by the gradual development of joint pain, stiffness, and a decreased range of motion.This is the type of arthritis common in older pets, and is increasing as pets live longer.

As we learn more about the subtleties of feline medicine we realize that many cats get significant arthritis especially in their lower back. This problem, also know as feline hypersethesia syndrome, causes tremendous discomfort and decreases the quality of life for many cats.

Anatomy

A normal joint is lined with hyaline cartilage, which is the covering over the end of the bone. It provides an almost frictionless surface for the bones to articulate, and also acts as a shock absorber. Hyaline cartilage is comprised of chondrocytes, proteoglycans, and collagen.

A normal joint is encased in a fibrous structure called the joint capsule. The joint capsule helps stabilize the joint and keeps the cartilage bathed in synovial fluid. Ligaments, which attach bone to bone, also provide joint stability.

This picture is from an actual surgery on the knee of a dog with a ruptured cranial cruciate ligament. The head is on the right, the foot is on the left, so the joint appears horizontal.

Arthritis-StifleJointArrow

The ridge of bone running horizontally at the bottom (arrow) is arthritis. The normal smooth cartilage above it is the normal groove of the knee (stifle) joint. The patella runs along this groove. 

Cause

The cause of this complex and multi factorial disease can be primary or secondary. Primary OA results from normal stresses acting on abnormal cartilage. Secondary OA is more common, and results from abnormal stresses acting on normal cartilage, such as an unstable joint caused by canine hip dysplasia, fragmented coronoid process, ununited anconeal process, patellar luxation, or a ruptured cruciate ligament. Some of the factors that can cause OA include excessive exercise, obesity, poor nutrition, trauma, immune reactions, and genetic predispositions.

The  following radiograph on the top is from a normal shoulder joint. The one on the bottom has an abnormal flap of cartilage at the arrow. This is know as osteochondritis dissecans, and is a primary OA. Without this radiograph we never would have know this limping pet had this problem.

shoulder arthritis

This normal shoulder joint shows no problems
osteochondritis

The white arrow points to a flap of cartilage that has eroded off

These two elbows from the same dog are normal

This elbow from a different dog shows advanced arthritis, probably secondary to elbow dysplasia

Damage to cartilage might occur as one event, or be the culmination of many small events over years. As swelling occurs, and the joint capsule becomes stretched, pain occurs. Your pet will use the joint less because of this pain, leading to muscle atrophy and the inability of the surrounding tendons and muscles to support the joint. As the muscular support of the joint weakens the joint capsule, ligaments, and cartilage become further stressed and stretched, leading to even further pain.

At this point the body releases chemicals called inflammatory mediators, (the therapy laser works on these mediators) which further damage the cartilage and add to even more swelling. It is obvious that this rapidly becomes a vicious cycle leading to debilitating pain. When OA progresses to the point that you notice your pet in discomfort or pain, the damage to the joint might be irreversible.

Diagnosis

Signalment

OA is commonly diagnosed in older dogs and cats. Some breeds are prone to getting it because of the conformation of their joints.

Dogs like Dachshunds have abnormally shaped long bones that might predispose them to OA. This is the wrist, forearm, and elbow of a Doxie. The medical terms are carpal, radius, ulna, and olecranon.

History

It is important to understand the initial symptoms might be subtle. Your pet will be experiencing pain or discomfort, yet it might not show any external signs.

Symptoms are related to joint pain and stiffness. Most owners notice a pet losing its ability to perform normally, such as a reluctance to jump or climb stairs, or even limping. Stiffness after rest that diminishes rapidly as your pet starts moving and warms up is a hallmark sign of OA. Other symptoms of arthritis include lethargy and poor appetite, which are the result of pain.

Initial symptoms are subtle and easily missed. Most dogs show a reluctance to run or move about. Some might not walk as long as usual, stop part way through a walk, or come back from a routine walk and go right to their bed to rest. They might be slow getting up.

Some will be reluctant to go up or down stairs, or might even be limping. As the disease progresses these dogs might be in overt pain and lose their appetite. Some of these symptoms occur in other diseases, notably hip dysplasia and intervertebral disk disease. The are treated in similar ways in some cases, in different  ways in other cases, so a proper diagnosis is imperative.

Dogs that will not go on extended walks, or dogs that pant excessively during a walk could also indicate OA. Symptoms can be worsened by obesity, too much exercise, and by cold or damp conditions.

Cats tend to show different symptoms sometimes. The most common areas for cats to have arthritis are the elbow, knee, hip, and spine. Most cats tuck their forelimbs under their bodies when they rest. If your cat consistently holds its elbow out (in extension) that could be a sign of elbow pain, a common area for arthritis to occur in cats. Cats that are reluctant to jump up to the bed or a window sill could have arthritis.

Other symptoms in cats include unkept fur due to pain when grooming. There could be overgrooming in painful areas leading to hair loss at the joints. Overgrown claws could be a sign it is not moving normally due to pain. At the end of this page is a link to the Feline Musculskeletal Pain Index to help determine if your cat is having a problem.

Physical Exam

In some pets there are no abnormalities detected during a physical exam. Pain or discomfort might be found by palpating a joint or pushing on the mid or lower back. We might feel grinding of joints (crepitus), a swollen joint, abnormal bone formation and roughened bones, or inflammation at the joint. Dogs with longer standing OA might show atrophy of muscles. Range of motion might be limited and cause discomfort or pain. There might also be subtle signs during the neurologic part of the exam.

Cats tend to have less crepitus and range of motion problems, but do have more joint swelling and pain.

Some pets are so distracted during an exam (this happens to us people commonly) that they do not exhibit signs of pain when touched in painful places. This is why we need some basic diagnostic tests.

Diagnostic Tests

Radiography is an important diagnostic test to perform on a dog or cat suspected of having OA. Even though a radiograph can be normal in a pet that has OA, it is a substantial help in verifying the diagnosis and determining the degree of involvement. Cats tend to have less radiographic evidence of arthritis, and might even have more cartilage problems than bone problems in some cases.

There are many diseases that can mimic the symptoms of OA, so a radiograph should be taken on every suspected OA  to eliminate these other causes.

This is a normal dog knee joint radiographically

This one has arthritis. The arrows point to all of the rough edges that are indicative of OA. Compare these rough edges to the smooth edges on the radiograph above. Also, the bone has a stronger whitish appearance, another indication of OA.

This dog was originally suspected of having arthritis based on a history of soreness in the hip area. It would be a mistake to treat this dog with an arthritis supplement and let the undiagnosed problem progress.

Radiographs revealed the true diagnosis was not the assumed arthritis, as can be seen at the arrow at the far left of the radiograph. The white circular area in the bone has the potential to be several different diseases, some of them serious like cancer.  A bone biopsy is need to know for sure.

A close-up view gives you a better idea of this dog’s problem

This form of OA is called spondylosis, which is arthritis of the vertebrae in the spine.
It is very common as pets age and causes substantial discomfort, nerve weakness, and even urinary and bowel incontinence.

The red circles show the sever spondylosis this bulldog has. It is affecting the nerves to the bladder, causing an inability to properly urinate. The hugely distended urinary bladder is the result of this nerve problem, and can be seen as the large whitish area in the center of the radiography. A bladder this large is painful and prone to a chronic infection (UTI or cystitis).

You can learn more about the bones of the spine by going to our intervertebral disk page.

This dog was sore around its rear quarters when petted by the owner. The owners of the dog assumed it was arthritis and treated the problem on their own. When it did not improve the dog was brought to us for a proper diagnosis. Look at the lateral radiograph below of its posterior abdomen and see what you think the cause of the soreness was.

Did you figure out what is going on? Those circular white objects towards the top right of the radiograph are 3 pennies in the rectum! Even though it seems like a safe place to store your money, it was painful and causing this dog’s problem.

This is another dog that was sore in its rear quarters which that owner (and all of his well intentioned friends that love to give advice) assumed was just old dog arthritis. The circle shows the real cause of the problem in this dog’s back end. It is due to enlarged sublumbar lymph nodes from malignant cancer. 

A very important differential when diagnosing OA on a radiograph is a bone tumor. This one is on the femur (thigh bone). This dog had symptoms of muscle atrophy and limping on this leg. If a radiograph had not been taken these symptoms could have easily been mistaken for arthritis. At this stage of the disease amputation is usually the only way to temporarily stop the tumor from spreading.

This is a serious form of cancer, and usually requires amputation 

The other important differential on radiograph like this is a bone infection called osteomyelitis. The fuzzy or roughened edges at the arrows is the infection.

The incorporation of digital radiography into our practice gives us substantially more detail on a radiograph. This is easily seen in the Ferret spine radiograph.

Treatment

Treatment of OA initially includes correction of any underlying primary diseases such as surgical correction of a torn ligament or arthroscopy to remove a cartilage flap. Once any primary disease has been addressed, the goal of treatment is to slow the progression of OA and to keep your pet comfortable. It’s important to realize that there is no cure for OA. The following are the treatment options we find that are most successful, and were mentioned at the beginning of this page.

Nutrition

Most pets with OA will require some adjustment in their lifestyle. Weight management is most important, since obese pets put unnecessary strain on joints, leading to a more rapid progression of the disease. Depending on the degree of obesity your veterinarian might put your overweight pet on Hill’s Metabolic Diet. This is a weight control product with lasting effects and is our first recommendation. We might also use Hill’s W/D (weight diet) or Hill’s R/D (reducing diet).

If your pet is not overweight  we will utilize a food called Hill’s J/D (joint diet). It has added chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine in addition to essential fatty acids and carnitine. These foods are complete and balanced nutrition and can be fed for the rest of your pets life. There is a version for dogs and one for cats. Like all Hill’s foods it highly recommend in almost every case of arthritis unless your pet has some other disease that precludes their use. All Hill’s Prescriptions Diets our doctors recommend are unconditionally guaranteed. We have a detailed page on Nutrition Advice to help clear the air on all the hype that exists on the Internet to get you to put your money into this multi billion dollar a year business.

Omega-3 fatty acids have been shown to improve activity in cats with arthritis. They are included in many health diets already, so added amounts are not needed in most cases.

Exercise

Excessive exercise that leads to pain or discomfort should be avoided, but moderate exercise is recommended. Swimming is an excellent exercise for pets that have OA and aren’t fearful of water. Most pets do best with several short, exercise periods per day rather than fewer extended periods. Each patient will have their own unique program of weight management and exercise, and we can help you individualize one for you and your pet.

There are even veterinarians that specialize in rehabilitative therapy, with specialized swimming pools and therapy methods.

Chondroprotective Agents

These products typically contain precursors of cartilage and joint fluid synthesis. We like to use these medications first since there are negligible side effects and they might be an aid in preventing further deterioration of the cartilage. Hill’s J/D contains adequate amounts of these ingredients. Please remember that if a little is good, a lot is not necessarily better, because you disrupt the nutrient balance that is so important in nutrition.

These products have a positive effect on cartilage matrix synthesis and  an inhibitory effect on the enzymes that break cartilage down. They might require up to 6 weeks of use before OA symptoms are diminished. Unfortunately they do not work in every case, so be realistic and make a careful assessment as to their efficacy.

Adequan

Adequan (polysulfated glycosaminoglycan) is an injectable chondroprotective agent. Adequan incorporates into joint cartilage and inhibits several enzymes that break down cartilage. No studies have been done in animals other than horses and dogs, but it appears to be safe and effective in other species including cats, rabbits, ferrets, and birds.

The intramuscular injections are initially given twice weekly (every 3-4 days) for a month, then given monthly as needed. Adequan seems to be most effective when given in the early stages of OA. 

Dasuquin

Unlike the injectable adequan, Dasuquin and other oral joint supplements are considered nutraceuticals, or nutritional supplements, and do not require FDA approval. Cosequin contains glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate, agents proven to be effective at supporting and protecting joint cartilage.

In addition, Dasuquin contains ASU (avocado/soybean unsaponifiables) that makes the glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate more effective.

There is a Dasuquin made for cats also

NSAID’S

The non-steroidal anti-inflammatories (NSAID’S) are the most commonly used drugs in treating OA in dogs. We also use them in cats, but for a shorter duration. NSAID’s are highly effective and tend to be the drug of choice when we put your pet on actual arthritis medication. They are so effective we even use them for routine post operative pain control in dogs and cats. They have saved many a dog from long term pain, and even euthanasia.

NSAID’S work by inhibiting an enzyme in the inflammatory pathway, thereby providing analgesia (pain relief), antipyrexia (decreased fever) and reduced tissue swelling. The enzyme that is inhibited is  cyclooxygenase (abbreviated COX). This enzyme causes an inflammatory reaction in the joint fluid that surrounds the joint.

A common NSAID is Rimadyl. We use other NSAID’s in addition to this one.

Before we start your pet on NSAID’S we perform an examination and run a baseline blood sample. Every 6 months we will examine your pet and recheck the blood to look for any potential side effects. This will make sure kidney and liver function is adequate.

This pet has kidney disease, and the kidney problem needs to be addressed before we institute NSAID therapy. We would use a lower dose of the NSAID many times in a pet with kidney disease like this to make sure the NSAID is not making the kidney disease worse. 

Using NSAID’S alone is not recommended since the signs of arthritis are masked, leading to a more active dog and a quicker progression of arthritis. NSAID’S, in combination with weight loss and chondroprotective agents, provide cartilage building blocks in addition to pain relief, and may slow the progression of OA.

All NSAID’S carry a small risk of side effects, so careful observation of your pet while on one of these medications is important. If they occur, the most common side effects are vomiting and diarrhea. There might also be kidney and liver problems, and even bleeding. These side effects can be minimized by using the lowest dosage and frequency possible, giving the medication on a full stomach, and giving Pepcid AC  prior.

The best way to minimize the potential for side effects, yet still get the most out of NSAID’s, is to use the lowest effective dose of the NSAID of choice, and combine it with proper diet,  VNA and Companion Laser as additional treatments. You will learn more about these treatments below.

We do not routinely use NSAID’s in cats due to their potential to cause kidney damage. These cats do best with weight loss if they are overweight, J/D diet if they are not overweight, Dasuquin, VNA, and Companion Laser. A new NSAID for cats is called Onsior. It is approved for treatment of pain and inflammation for 3 days, so we use it routinely in our post operative cat patients.

The other primary NSAID we use in cats is called meloxicam (Metacam). It is used only for a few days due to the potential for problems with the kidneys.

VNA (also called VOM in the past)

An additional treatment modality that has yielded great success  for well over the last 20 years is called VNA. It has been a game changer for us in the treatment of arthritis in a wide variety of animals.

It is a non-invasive and non-painful way to stimulate the autonomic nervous system to help correct the problem. Through the use of VNA we can decrease the use of the above medications in almost all cases. By decreasing the use of these medications, we help your pet live a longer and healthier life, while decreasing you medication costs over the life of your pet. Click here to learn more about VNA.

This dog is getting VNA therapy for its arthritic spine

Cats respond very well to VNA treatment. They get what is called the “Feline Hyperesthesia Syndrome. In this syndrome, their lower backs are extremely sensitive, so much so that they start licking compulsively when scratched there, can bite an owner due to pain, and even go into a seizure.

Look how sensitive this cat is when scratched at its rear quarters

As we perform VNA the cat relaxes completely because the sensitivity is diminished

We use VNA in a wide variety of species. This rabbit has GI stasis, and felt much better after this treatment.

Companion Laser Therapy

In the last few years we have added a new and natural way to treat arthritis using the Therapy Laser. This modality has been used to treat people for over 30 years and has recently been approved by the FDA for use in animals. This treatment modality has been a huge boon to our geriatric pets with painful arthritis, especially when used with low dose NSAID’s and VNA.

To learn more about it please click here or on the picture below.

Acupuncture

This can also be used at any time to augment the treatment already being utilized. To learn more about how we use acupuncture follow this link.

Do you see the two acupuncture needles on this pet’s neck?

Miscellaneous Pain Medications

Galliprant

This is a prostaglandin antagonist that helps with pain and inflammation. It is used only in dogs.

Tramadol

This medication is used for pain. It seems to help, but there is controversy on whether it does actually help with pain, with the latest consenus is that it is not helpful. .

Gabapentin

This seizure medication is another useful adjunct as the arthritis progresses.

Brupenorphine

Short term use can be effective for pain control.

Regenerative Medicine

What this is not doing is to generate new and healthly cartilage as is a common misconception. What this treatment does is take a high concentration of growth factors and anti-inflammatories and bring them to an area of relatively poor tissue healing with the chance there will be a reduction on the inflammatory process.

Stem Cell Therapy- (Adipose Derived Stem Cells ( Ad-SCT ))

This promising yet unproven treatment utilizes stem cells from your own dog’s fat cells to alleviate arthritis symptoms. This means there is no chance of rejection, a major advantage of this technique.

Your dog has to be anesthetized for a short time in order to harvest the fat cells. Collection sites can be in many areas depending on your dogs conformation and fat reserves. Once the fat cells are harvested they are shipped overnight to the company that isolates the stem cells with a specialized technique. They are returned usually within 48 hours. We sedate your pet again and inject the stem cells into the affected area.

We will keep you posted as this promising therapy is given better scrutiny to make sure it has no deleterious effects in the long run and actually helps.

Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP)

This is a blood sample from your pet with a high concentration of  platelets without red blood cells (RBC’s) and some white blood cells (WBC’S). These platelets have growth factors and anti-inflammatory properties.

Rehabilitation

This can range from using wobble boards and exercise balls up to underwater treadmills. These can be beneficial, and we would send you to a veteriinary specialist to help determine if this will help in your pet’s case.

Here is the link to the Feline Musculskeletal Pain index. Please print it out and bring it in when we examine your cat.

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Anesthesia

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One of the most important tools available to veterinarians to thoroughly and painlessly treat pets is the advent of modern day anesthetics. These anesthetic agents allow us to sedate and anesthetize a wide variety of animals with negligible chance of serious side effects.

Modern anesthetics allows us to safely anesthetize high risk animals like this duck with a fractured wing. You can see her surgery in our Wildlife Care page.

The lack of significant complications from anesthesia is due to a combination of expertise, thorough pre-anesthetic testing, and state of the art anesthetic and monitoring equipment. We are equipped to anesthetize any pet from a finch that weighs 15 grams (it takes 454 grams to make up one pound), to pets that weigh several hundred pounds. We are also particularly proficient in anesthetizing senior pets and pets with medical problems like liver and kidney disease.

The most important part of monitoring your pet while it is under anesthesia is our nurse technician that is with your pet the whole time it is under anesthesia

The goals of anesthesia are to minimize anxiety and eliminate pain. In addition, from the surgical point of view, anesthesia allows profound muscle relaxation. This is helpful in every surgery because the procedure will go quicker and incisions can be made smaller when the muscles are relaxed. In certain types of surgery like fracture repair, this muscle relaxation is crucial for success.

It is normal for you to have concern if your pet is about to undergo a procedure that requires anesthesia. Because of this fact, we invite you to be a part of our anesthetic team. Your primary responsibility is to let us know of your concern. You will have access to your doctor to discuss any of your concerns and to set up a custom protocol for your pet, taking its specific needs into consideration. Only when you are comfortable with the situation will we proceed any further. Also, to alleviate your concern on the day of actual anesthesia, we will call you immediately after your pet wakes up, if you so desire. Please leave a number where we can reach you on the day of surgery.

Pre-Anesthesia

A pre-anesthetic exam is performed just prior to anesthetizing any animal. We are looking for any problems, particularly with the heart and lungs.

We perform this exam just prior to anesthetizing your pet

Even our more unusual patients get an exam prior to surgery

One of the precautions we take to minimize the risk of anesthesia is to perform pre-anesthetic diagnostic tests. A pet can pass its pre anesthetic physical exam and still have significant internal problems, so it is important that we perform more than just a physical exam. This is because animals cannot tell us of their problems, have high pain thresholds in comparison to people, and have defensive mechanisms allowing them to hide symptoms. Pre-anesthetic diagnostic tests are designed to alert us to internal problems that are occurring without any symptoms.

We prefer to perform an exam and blood panel about one week prior to surgery. We send this blood panel out to our lab for a thorough analysis of important organs like red blood cells, liver, and kidney.

 This report is showing a kidney problem

 

In an emergency, or when we cannot send the blood out to our lab several days prior to surgery, we can perform an analysis in our hospital by our blood analyzer

We can have this report in 30 minutes. This is how it checks the CBC (Complete Blood Count). It also gives us a biochemical report like the one above that checks the internal organs like the kidneys.

Those pets that have infections (especially tooth infections) might be put on antibiotics ahead of time. They make pets feel better, and help support internal organs.

Older pets, or those with medical problem,s are given intravenous (IV) fluids prior to and during the anesthetic procedure. Giving fluids prior to the surgery greatly reduces anesthetic risk. This is particularly important in older pets and those with kidney or liver disease. Most pets that have significant dental disease will also be given IV fluids.

IV fluids are one of the most important treatment modalities we have for a wide variety of medical situations in addition to surgery

Pre-Anesthetic ECG

For elderly pets, those with heart murmurs or heart conditions, we perform an electrocardiogram just prior too surgery.


This one has a potential problem that needs to be addressed

Blood Transfusions

For those pets that are anemic, or in surgeries where we anticipate significant blood less, we give whole blood before, during, and after the surgery. This is important in surgeries like splenectomies.

This is what anemia looks like in a CBC from our in house blood machine

Dog do not have iso antibodies, so in an emergency, and if the dog has never received blood before, we can give blood from most any dog donor. It is not our preferred way of doing a blood transfusion.

Before we give the blood we prefer to do a cross match

We use whole blood that is specially prepared and stored

Injectable Anesthesia

Injectable anesthetics are used for many purposes. One of their primary uses is to sedate pets before giving the actual anesthesia (called pre-anesthetic). By sedating ahead of time we dramatically minimize anxiety, cause a smoother recovery, and minimize how much anesthetic we need to administer during the actual procedure. In addition, some injectable anesthetics minimize vomiting, a common problem when waking up from anesthethesia.

Injectable anesthesia is given intravenously, and rapidly induces relaxation so that we can put in a breathing tube

Injectable anesthetics are also used to give complete anesthesia for short periods of time. This is used for C-sections and minor surgical procedures. Injectable anesthetics are ideal to sedate a pet for radiographs (x-rays).

As new anesthetic agents evolve, the trend is towards using injectable anesthetics more and more for complete surgical anesthesia. They are very effective, very safe, and allow for rapid recovery from anesthesia. They also protect the environment because there are no anesthetic gases vented into the atmosphere.

Gas Anesthesia

The mainstay for general anesthesia is gas anesthesia because it is very safe and highly controllable. We use a safe and effective gas anesthesia  called Isoflurane. It is so safe it can be used in creatures as small as tiny birds.

Lisa is watching carefully as this budgie is being anesthetized for a surgery to remove a growth on its cloaca

Gas anesthesia requires specialized equipment and training. Several precision components are used to administer and monitor anesthesia:

Oxygen

All pets put under gas anesthesia are given 100% oxygen from the moment they are anesthetized until they wake up, dramatically increasing the safety of the procedure.

We have a special machine in surgery that generates 100% oxygen

As a backup,  oxygen is stored in large tanks under high pressure. The oxygen in these tanks is delivered to the anesthetic machine via special piping throughout the hospital. This allows us to have anesthetic machines in several hospital locations.

A pet can be brought into radiology after its surgery and still be kept under gas anesthesia, while the surgeon reviews post operative radiographs to ensure everything is in order. This is especially helpful when orthopedic surgery is performed.

Keeping a pet under anesthesia is important in orthopedic surgery to make sure the plates, pins, or screws are properly placed and in alignment. If they are not, this can be corrected before a pet wakes up completely. 

Endotracheal Tube

Oxygen is routinely delivered to your pet by a breathing tube (endotracheal tube) in its windpipe. It is the preferred method to administer oxygen because it is very efficient, will prevent any vomitus from entering the trachea (vomiting rarely happens because of fasting and pre-anesthetic sedation), and allows us to gently inflate the lungs during surgery so that they work at maximum efficiency. Besides oxygen, the anesthetic gas (Isoflurane) is also administered through the endotracheal tube. Medications can even be administered via this special tube.

 

The endotracheal (ET) tube is placed directly into the windpipe

This x-ray shows the breathing tube (follow the arrow) as it passes over the tongue and down the trachea (windpipe)

We can easily breathe for your pet and inflate your pet’s lungs by gently squeezing the bag connected to the tube, monitoring the amount of pressure we are exerting with a gauge on the anesthetic machine. Each size and species of pet requires a different sized endotracheal tube. The tube is not removed from your pet until it is literally waking up. This ensures that the swallowing reflex is present, and your pet is now safely able to breathe on its own.

Vaporizer

An instrument called a precision vaporizer is used to deliver the Isoflurane anesthetic gas within the oxygen. It is a very precise instrument allowing us to make fine adjustments in anesthetic level. Without this vaporizer we would not have the wide safety margin that we currently enjoy.

We can precisely and easily change the level of anesthesia during the procedure as needs change

For most surgeries we administer the anesthetic at a setting of 1-3 %. This small percent of anesthetic, added to the 100% oxygen the pet is breathing, is all that is needed to achieve complete surgical anesthesia. Before the surgical procedure is finished the anesthetic is lowered before it is turned off completely. As the surgeon is finishing the procedure your pet is in the beginning stages of waking up. This decreases anesthetic time,  another way we minimize anesthetic risk.

Monitoring

Our surgeon is one of the best monitors, because he/she is literally visualizing the blood in the circulatory system. Any change in the blood is readily noticed because pets that are breathing 100% oxygen should have bright red blood.

In addition to all the high tech monitoring equipment we have, our anesthetist is hands-on in monitoring your pet. Here Brianna is using  her stethoscope to check the heart, even though the heart monitor behind her is doing the same thing. 

After listening to the heart she keeps a close tab on oxygen flow and the anesthetic level of our precision vaporizer

We keep detailed records of fluid rate rates, anesthetic and oxygen levels, and physiologic parameters, during the surgery

We keep a close tab on the heart with the stethoscope on all of our more unusual surgical patients

Since our small patients can easily become hypothermic due to the anesthesia and surgery, we monitor temperature continuously.

Surgery-GPigWaterBlanket

Surgery-GPigWaterBlanket1

All of our patients, especially the smaller ones like this guinea pig, are kept on warm water water blankets to prevent hypothermia before during, and after any anesthetic procedure.

Anesthetic Monitor

This highly accurate and sensitive monitor gives us detailed information on your pets physiologic status while under anesthesia.

It is a sophisticated instrument that gives us an early warning sign of impending problems with your pet’s physiology

It is calibrated prior to surgery to ensure accuracy

Watch it in action, and see if you an figure out what all these numbers mean

We sometimes use other instruments to monitor you pet while it is under anesthesia, even though the Surgical monitor does this also. It pays to be redundant. The two most important additional instruments we use are:

Pulse Oximeter (Pulse Ox)

The portable pulse oximeter is an instrument that measures the oxygen saturation of you pet’s red blood cells (to be more specific, its hemoglobin). It is an extremely sensitive instrument that gives us an indication of problems that may be arising long before your pet suffers any ill effects. In addition to measuring oxygen saturation, it measures heart rate, pulse character, and respiration.

This instrument does its magic by measuring the hemoglobin that is oxygenated, and comparing it to the hemoglobin that is not oxygenated. It does this by shining a light on an artery, and then measures how much of this light is absorbed. It gives us an answer in PaO2– the partial atmospheric pressure of oxygen.

This Guinea Pig has the pulse oximeter sensor attached to his foot in preparation for surgery

The Pulse Oximeter measures oxygen saturation of 92%  and a heart rate of 87 beats per minute (BPM). Both of these are normal on this pet, which is a pot bellied pig.

The pulse oximeter has several different types of sensors that can be attached in various locations depending on the procedure being performed.The pulse oximeter can also be used on pets that are not anesthetized. It is useful for pets that are having difficulty breathing (dyspnea) from many different causes. It is also used to monitor pets that are in a state of shock. One of the most common reasons for pets to be presented to us in a state of shock is from trauma, especially being hit by a car (HBC).

Blood Pressure Monitor

We also monitor the blood pressure when pets are under anesthesia for the longer surgical procedures. This is done with our anesthetic monitor.

Blood pressure can also be checked manually at any time

Our hypertension page has a video of the doppler blood pressure monitor in action when we use it in an exam room.

Capillary Refill Time

To complement these high tech methods of monitoring, our anesthetist technician uses several hands-on techniques as a backup. One of the easiest of these is called capillary refill time (CRT). By pressing on the mucous membranes in the mouth, and noting how long it takes for the blanched area to turn pink again, we get a basic assessment of your pets cardiovascular status. A normal pet’s pink color returns within 2 seconds. This technique is used in other situations besides anesthetic monitoring. It is especially helpful when a pet is in shock or is dehydrated.

Capillary refill time on this pet is less than one second

Pain Medication

We complete the anesthetic process by giving your pet a pain injection before it wakes up from the anesthetic. Since the gas anesthesia has a small amount of residual analgesia (ability to kill pain), the pain shot kicks in as the gas anesthetic is wearing off. This allows for a very smooth and pain free recovery. We monitor this closely, and will give additional injections as needed. This pain injection will keep your pet calm its first night home from any surgery. We will also send you home with oral pain medication also for several days.

Local Anesthesia

Another excellent way to prevent the pain encountered when your pet first wakes up is to use a long acting local anesthetic at the incision site. We administer it prior to completion of the surgery so it is in full effect when your pet wakes up.

We use the long acting version of this drug which eliminates pain for up to 8 hours

We even have a local anesthesia patch that is used in some cases to bring long term relief for several days if needed.

Pain Patch

We also use Duragesic (Fentanyl) patches for general pain control in the more serious cases. It is preferable to apply it 12 hours before the surgery for maximum effect postoperatively. It provides pain relief for 3 days. It is important to make sure that no children or other pets are allowed to contact the patch in any way. Bring your pet back to us for proper removal and disposal.

The patch is applied in different locations depending on the surgery. Wrapped around one of the legs and between the shoulder blades are common locations. If we put it on the leg it is covered with a bandage. It will be bandaged for protection and to minimize the chance of contact with other pets and children. Please return in 3 days for us to remove it and dispose of it properly.

One of our nurses is applying it in this picture using gloves to ensure she does not come into contact with the active ingredient.

We will commonly staple the patch to the skin if we put it between the shoulder blades

Our surgical patients are monitored closely immediately after surgery. We will verify the pain medication is working, and that there are no ill effects from the anesthetic. It will also allow your pet to completely wake up and walk normally in a controlled environment where it cannot hurt itself.

Our technical staff monitors your pet post operatively until we are certain it is ready to go home

Long term pain control at home is also important during the next several days. We will routinely send you home with an anti-inflammatory medication or pain suspension for long term pain control. The two most common medications we use are Rimadyl and Torbutrol suspension.

Laser Surgery

Even though it is not an actual pain medication, using our carbon dioxide laser when indicated during a surgical procedure dramatically minimizes pain because it decreases inflammation, swelling, and cauterizes nerve endings. By using the laser and stopping the pain cascade before it even begins there is a dramatic influence on decreasing post operative pain.

This video shows you how we calibrate and set the laser for a neuter surgery

Companion Laser Surgery Post Op

For additional pain control we use our  Companion Laser on the incision line before your pet wakes up from anesthesia. This decreases post operative swelling and pain, and makes your pet much more comfortable.


You get to wear cool glasses when we use this laser

Watch it in action

Returning Home after anesthesia

When you bring your pet home after anesthesia it is helpful to follow some common sense suggestions:

Keep contact with other pets and children to a minimum for at least the first 12 hours. Confine it to an area where it cannot hurt itself  because it may not be steady on its feet for up to 24 hours. It might be groggy the first night due to the pain injection it was given.

Use pain medication as prescribed and keep your pet in a warm and quiet area. You can spend time giving unlimited TLC

Even though your pet has probably been fasted for the anesthesia, feed it only a small amount of food and water when first returning home. Give it more later if it eats well and does not vomit (emesis). Most pets return to a normal appetite within 24 hours. If your pet has not fully recovered from the anesthetic by the next day then please call our office.

Please call us in the evening if you have any questions when your pet returns home from surgery or any anesthetic procedure.

To learn much more about how we do surgery at the Long Beach Animal Hospital please visit our Surgery Page and our Diseases Page.

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Spay- Pot Bellied Pig

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Spaying a pig has similarities to spaying dogs and cats, but not a lot! It is an interesting surgery because of the unique anatomy of the pot bellied pig. They have miles of intestines and a uterus that’s very long because of the large number of piglets that are born at one time.

Graphic surgery photos on this page.

On the day of surgery we need your pet in the hospital between 7:30 AM and 9 AM. Please take away all food and water when you go to bed the evening before surgery, and do not give your pig anything to eat or drink the morning of surgery. It will go home in the late afternoon the day of surgery. Please call our office at 4 PM for pickup time, you will be given post operative instructions then.

This is Elly, a young lady who will be our patient today.


Anesthesia

Pre-anesthetic preparation is important in every surgery we perform, no matter how routine, because surgery is not an area to cut corners. All of our spays receive a physical exam prior to surgery. Only if they pass this exam will we draw a small amount of blood for an in-hospital pre-anesthetic test. When everything is to our satisfaction we will administer a sedative. This will calm the pet down and make the administration of the actual anesthetic, along with post operative recovery, much smoother.

Once a pet is anesthetized, prepared for surgery, and had its monitoring equipment hooked up and reading accurately, the surgery can begin.

Pigs need to be monitored carefully for overheating during anesthesia, which is the opposite of most anesthetized animals. They produce more body heat relative to other animals because of their large muscle mass. Pigs do not sweat or pant, they need to be in contact with something cool to rid of excess body heat. Because of this we constantly monitor their temperature during and after the surgery.

We keep a close tab on important physiologic parameters for all of our surgeries. Monitors like this give us an early warning of an impending problem.

Surgery-Monitor


Surgery

The following area contains graphic pictures of an actual surgical procedure performed at the hospital. It may not be suitable for some children (and some adults also!).

Every major surgery we perform begins with proper patient preparation. This will help prevent infection, which could be a serious complication in this surgery because during a spay we have an opening into the abdomen.


The surgeon makes an incision near the umbilicus and extends it 3-5 inches in the direction of the tail (the tail is at the left in this picture). We try to make our incisions as small as possible to minimize anesthetic time, decrease post operative discomfort, and minimize the healing time.

Our surgeon is using a #10 blade to start the incision


The tissue just underneath the skin is called the subcutaneous layer. It consists mostly of small blood vessels, and of course fat (this is a pig after all).


The final layer we need to cut before we are actually into the abdomen is called the linea alba. It is an area of muscle in the center of the abdomen that is covered by a tough layer of tissue. This is the most important layer resutured at the end of the surgery because it is the only layer strong enough to hold the abdominal muscles together to prevent a hernia.

In this picture the linea is being held up with a forceps, and a scalpel blade (held upside down) is being used to make the incision.


Scissors are commonly used to extend the linea incision and facilitate the removal of the uterus. Care has to be taken not to puncture internal organs like the bladder.

The scissors is sharp and all we have to do is slide it along the tissue for a proper cut


Buried within the abdominal organs and abdominal fat is the uterus. A special instrument called a spay hook is sometimes utilized to gently pull one of the uterine horns through the abdominal incision.

This hook allows us to keep the skin incision small


The uterine horn is traced into the body cavity until the ovary is found. It has to be gently teased from its location near the kidneys in order to be able to pull it out through the abdominal incision. In older pigs this part of the procedure is much more difficult.

This ovary (arrow) has several follices forming, which is the bumpy appearance.


The blood supply to the ovary is extensive, so a special technique is utilized to prevent hemorrhage. This technique involves the use of special clamps. The smaller arrow on the top points to the ovary, which will be removed along with the clamp. The 2 larger arrows on the bottom point to two sutures used to tie off (called ligation) the blood supply to the ovary.

This area is called the pedicle, and will be replaced back into the abdomen when the surgery is complete.


When both ovaries have been removed the body of the uterus is now ligated.

You can see the first suture being placed at the top of the screen.


Another ligature is placed around the body and the uterus is cut away


The linea alba is now securely resutured. Stainless steel sutures are sometimes used because they are very strong, cause minimal tissue reaction, and show up vividly on an x-ray of the abdomen .


The subcutaneous layer is now closed with a type of suture that dissolves over several months.


The last layer sutured is the skin. Sometimes we put the sutures on the outside, which means they have to be removed in 7-10 days. We call this a bikini scar.

It is at this point that we will give a pain injection, which might make this pig groggy for the evening.


Postoperative Care

Most pigs go home late in the afternoon on the day we perform the surgery. They might be groggy from the pain injection which is advantageous because they will remain calm and allow the healing process to start immediately. By the following morning the grogginess will have worn off.

When you first get home do not be in a big rush to feed. After 1 hour at home offer a small amount of food and water. If the appetite is good, offer more several hours later. Do not over do the feeding the first night because anesthesia can make them nauseous.

Keep contact with children and other pets to a minimum the first night, and restrict activity for several days to allow the incision to heal. Try not let your pig go outside until healing is complete.

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Neuter- Pot Bellied Pig

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At the Long Beach Animal Hospital use of the laster is mandatory for all neuters.  The advantages of using the laser will be obvious.

Sometimes people get a jaded mindset when it comes to routine surgeries like neuters, that are performed by the thousands, especially at low cost spay and neuter clinics. It is a major surgery, and we treat it as such at the Long Beach Animal Hospital, which you will learn about in this page.

One of the more interesting surgeries we perform is a pig neuter, know medically as an orchectomy. It has similarities to neutering other animals, particularly dogs, yet it is not the same thing as a dog neuter. You should not try this surgery at home….

Several days prior to any surgery please bring in your pet for a preanesthetic exam and blood panel to confirm your pet is ready for anesthesia. At that time one of our doctors will go over any questions you have.

On the day of surgery we need your pet in the hospital between 7:30 AM and 8 AM. Please take away all food and water when you go to bed the evening before surgery, and do not give your pig anything to eat or drink the morning of surgery. It will go home in the late afternoon the day of surgery. Please call our office at 4 PM for pickup time, you will be given post operative instructions then.

Our surgeon will call you after the surgery is complete and your pig is awake. It can go home in the late afternoon the day of surgery unless instructed otherwise. Please call our office at 4 PM for pickup time, you will be given written post operative instructions then. We are open in the evening if you need to pick up later.

This is Bailey, our victim (oops, we mean patient). Isn’t he just cute enough to hug!

Anesthesia

Pre-anesthetic preparation is important in every surgery we perform, no matter how routine. All of our neuters receive a pre-anesthetic test several days prior to surgery.

Bailey is a good patient and held still for his blood sample

When everything is in order we will give a sedative. This will calm Daisy down and make the administration of the actual anesthetic, along with post operative recovery, much smoother. Once a pet is anesthetized, prepared for surgery, and had its monitoring equipment hooked up and reading accurately, the surgery can begin.

Pigs need to be monitored carefully for overheating during anesthesia, which is the opposite of most anesthetized animals. They produce more body heat relative to other animals because of their large muscle mass. Pigs do not sweat or pant, they need to be in contact with something cool to rid of excess body heat. Because of this we constantly monitor their temperature during and after the surgery.

We keep a close tab on important physiologic parameters for all of our surgeries. Monitors like this give us an early warning of an impending problem.

Surgery-Monitor

Once our surgeon has scrubbed up and is  in sterile gown, gloves, and mask, the surgery begins

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Surgery

The following area contains graphic pictures of an actual surgical procedure performed at the hospital.

Bailey is being readied for surgery. His anesthesia has been given and we are ready for our surgical prep.


We make our skin incision just in front of the scrotum. We used the laser to make the incision because of its tremendous advantages.

There is no bleeding from the the skin incision when we use the laser. This is an advantage for the surgeon and the patient.

The testicle bulges out of the incision cover by its internal layers called tunics

The testicle is carefully exteriorized giving us access to the base where the blood vessels reside

Special suture is used to tie off the blood supply before we remove the testicle

The blood supply is so extensive we use more than one strong suture. These sutures will dissolve over the next several months.

The sutures we place in the skin are removed in 10 days.

Bailey is a little groggy right after the surgery, but at least he is feeling minimal pain. This is because we use the laser and we gave him post-operative medication for pain.

Postoperative Care

Most pigs go home late in the afternoon on the day we perform the surgery. They might be groggy from the pain injection which is advantageous because they will remain calm and allow the healing process to start immediately. By the following morning the grogginess will have worn off.

When you first get home do not be in a big rush to feed. After 1 hour at home offer a small amount of food and water. If the appetite is good, offer more several hours later. Do not over do the feeding the first night because anesthesia can make them nauseous.

Keep contact with children and other pets to a minimum the first night, and restrict activity for several days to allow the incision to heal. Try not let your pig go outside until healing is complete.

Laser Surgery

Using the laser has many advantages over using a scalpel blade. These include negligible bleeding during the procedure and post operative pain. Our Laser Page has detailed information on the use of the laser for various surgeries.

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How to Read a Radiograph (X-Ray)

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This is a fun section designed to test your diagnostic abilities. Periodically we will show new x-rays (the proper word is radiograph) for you to test your skills, so remember to come back and see what new rads (that is the slang word we sometimes use) are posted on our site.

Before we get started, lets get some basics out of the way. There are five radiographic densities:

Soft tissue– internal organs like the liver and kidneys with a whitish color

Fat– the fat around the internal organs, also with a whitish color. Without this fat you would not be able to differentiate the different internal organs like the liver or kidneys, since they are soft tissue, and have the same radiographic density.

Air– this is black, and is what you see for the lungs in a chest radiograph

Bone– which is brighter than soft tissue or fat

Metal– Vivid, very bright, and hard to miss

Look at each x-ray closely (sometimes very closely) and see if you can figure out what is wrong. We have a couple of clues to help you make an interpretation:

  • Use symmetry when you can. Compare both sides, legs, or whatever else that might be useful.
  • Pull your face away from the screen and scan the whole x-ray before you jump into the details.
  • After you have scanned the whole radiograph look very closely for subtle changes.

First we will show a bunch of fun radiographs of the more unusual pets we see at our hospital. After that we will do some radiograph reading lessons, teaching you about the normal anatomy of dogs and cats. After that is a little test to see how you did. We will stick to abdominal radiographs for the test to make it easier. Good luck, and have fun!

Exotic Animal Radiographs

These first few rads are for a little fun, and to get your eyeballs warmed up for later.

Pregnant Guinea Pig

Iguana bladder stones. Click here to see the surgery to remove a bladder stone in an Iggie. 

Female rabbit with mummified fetuses that are several months old

California Desert Tortoise (CDT) with eggs

Two white bladder stones in a Guinea Pig

 

Normal hawk from our Wildlife Care Program

Calcium sludge in the bladder of a rabbit. This is called hypercalciuria, and you can read our detailed page on it

Did you also see the microchip and the calcium in the kidney?

Chinchilla incisor and molar teeth

 Snake with eggs

Rabbit with a fluid filled uterus

Do you see the two pellets in this hawk’s wing?

Did you also see the fracture in this wing? How should this be handled? You can see what we did in our Wildlife  Care Page

Normal X-Rays of dogs and cats

This is a radiograph of the abdomen of a normal cat that is laying on its right side. The head is towards the left. Use the diagram below to identify the organs.

The stomach has food in it, and the large intestine contains feces. All five radiographic densities are present in this abdominal radiograph. Do you see all of them? 

Air- is in the lungs along with gas in the intestines

S.T. -soft tissue is the liver and kidney

Fat- this is abdominal fat

Bone- lumbar vertebrae

Metal- the R marker to indicate this cat is laying on its right side is made of metal

Here is another normal cat abdominal radiograph, this time with an empty stomach

Here is another one, this time with the spleen and metallic sutures from a spay.

You can easily see the liver (L), stomach (S) kidneys (K) , the small intestines (SI), the large intestine (LI), the urinary bladder (UB), and the Spleen (Sp). The arrow points to stainless steel sutures in the muscle layer from a spay operation.

Abnormal X-Rays

This dog is having a difficult time urinating. Can you tell what is wrong?

Look towards the right side of this abdominal radiograph

Does labeling the organs help in your diagnosis?

The bladder is huge, because this dog is having a difficult time urinating. It is probably due to nerve dysfunction, since the spinal cord has changes called spondylosis. The circle points this out on one of the vertebrae

You can learn more about this problem, called spondylosis, from our arthritis page

This is a dog abdominal radiograph. Notice anything unusual?

Again, look towards the right side

You can see the circle around the numerous stones (called calculi) in the urinary bladder

Did you also notice the stones in the kidney and pelvic urethra?

Our web page on bladder stones has lots of good information

This cat is labeled for you. Anything fishy?

Look towards the left side of the radiograph this time

Did you see the pellet in the neck? Look again at the radiograph above, its plain as day.

Now that you are an expert at reading radiographs give the following one a try. It is from a cat that is straining to urinate and has blood in its urine. The answer is below, along with a picture with arrows pointing to the abnormalities.

This cat has 2 stones in its urinary bladder (click here to learn more about them and see a surgery of how they are removed). The stones are radiopaque, which means they show up easily on the radiograph. Some bladder stones are radiolucent, and can only be seen by injecting dye or air into the urinary bladder.

The arrows point to the bladder stones, along with the faint metallic sutures from a spay

Pretty easy so far, huh? Don’t get too confident just yet, our next few are a little harder. Look over the next few abnormal radiographs and send us an e-mail with your answer. If you aren’t sure and just need some clues e-mail us also and we will help you. Good Luck!

Abnormal X-Rays

Now that you are experts at reading x-rays, you can put your newfound skills to work. Email us at vet@lbah.com for the answers.

  1. What do you think about this cat radiograph?

2. This radiograph is an abdomen view from a very sick dog. It is 13 years old and losing weight

 

3. This is from an elderly dog that is losing weight

3. This dog is limping on its rear leg

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Home Care of the Surgical Patient

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When you pick up your pet after surgery you will be given a chance to talk with our staff or surgeon, and be given post operative instructions specifically for your pet and the surgery performed. These are the instructions to follow. The information on this page is good general information on other things to do at home, as long as they don’t contradict your post operative instructions.

When your pet first returns home from surgery let it have a calm and quiet spot away from other pets and children. Put it in a warm area without any drafts, and make sure it is able lay down on something comfortable.

It might be lethargic from anesthesia and the pain medication it has received, which is what we want so that it is comfortable and does not bother the incision site.

After it is home and settled, offer a small amount of water. Even though most pets are fasted prior to surgery, at our hospital they are give intravenous fluids before, during, and after surgery, so do not worry if your pet does not drink initially.

If it drinks, and does not vomit, offer small amounts of water periodically over the next several hours, and then offer small amounts of food the same way. Give it a chance to go outside to the bathroom several times.

Use all medication, especially pain medication, as directed. What might seem like pain can sometimes be confusion after the day’s activities and surgery. It is rare for a pet to be painful after surgery. We take special precautions so that does not happen. Some of these precautions include:

Preanesthetic pain patch and sedation

Local anesthetic at the surgical site

Laser surgery

Post operative pain injection

Post operative pain medication at home

We go overboard on pain control, and in addition to all the pain medications already mentioned, we use the cold laser to minimize swelling and post operative pain at the incision site while your pet is still under anesthesia. This cat is getting this treatment after its spay (OVH) surgery

Here it is in action after a dog neuter

 Indications that your pet is in pain include:

Crying

Excess panting

Unable to find a comfortable place to sit or lay down

If your pet seems painful several hours after returning home please call us. Our anesthesia page has more on pain control and the precautions we take to minimize pain.

Many pets will go home with an E-Collar (Elizabethan Collar) to prevent them from licking or chewing at the incision site. Leave this collar on at all times until sutures are removed, unless you are in direct supervision. Some people take the collar off after a few days when healing is progressing well and the collar seemingly is not needed. This coincides with the itchy phase of the healing process, and pets can cause damage to the incision, or worse.

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Make sure you put your E-Collar on your pet and not on yourself!

Observe the incision site several times per day. A minor amount of redness and swelling is usual. If it seems excessive call us and we can check it if necessary.

 

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