Category: Rabbit

Symptoms of Diseases

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Here are 5 basic areas you should observe on a daily basis.

Eating

Watch your pets daily eating habits for :

  • difficulty chewing
  • odor
  • swelling
  • pawing at its muzzle

Since dental disease is so prevalent please follow the link to learn how this can affect your pet’s eating.

Breathing

When your pet is at rest count the number of times it breathes per minute (watch it for 15 seconds and multiply that number by 4). A typical dog or cat breathes 30-40 times per minute, although this can be variable based on breed and external temperature. The important thing to watch for is an increase in its respiratory rate over a period of time. Trend this on a piece of paper weekly so you can see this trend as it gets going. This can be a subtle but very important parameter to measure since an increase here can be for many serious reasons.

Urination

Look for any changes in the following:

  • Urinating more often or in greater amounts than normal
  • Urinating small amounts frequently
  • Straining to urinate
  • Inability to urinate
  • Licking at genitals

In female dogs it can be difficult to assess some of these parameters, so try to pay close attention when she squats to urinate.

Defecation

Any significant change here is important:

  • Continual diarrhea of any type
  • Straining to defecate
  • Licking at anus
  • Scooting
  • Any blood on feces

Walking

Obvious lameness is readily noticed. Also look for a pet that is leaning more towards one leg or the other, tires easily after walking or playing, is slow at getting up after resting, or is reluctant to go up or down any type of elevation like stairs or jumping into a vehicle.

Now that you have observed your pets daily habits lets look at how you can look for problems that are not so apparent by going to our In Home Exam page.

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Cancer

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The scientific word for cancer is neoplasia, meaning new growth. In reality, it is an abnormal growth of cells that interferes with an organ’s ability to function, resulting in a degree of failure in that organ. Some of these abnormal cells break off from the organ and spread to other organs in the body. This process is called metastasis, and is the hallmark of malignant cancer.

Cancer it is not one disease, has many different causes, and can affect every organ. This makes it quite a challenge to diagnose and treat. Even though the cause is not known in many cases, we do know of major factors that predispose pets to getting cancer. You will learn about this on this page regarding squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in white cats that are exposed to the sun.

A major predisposing factor is dogs, cats and rabbits that are not neutered and spayed when they are young.  Their chances of getting breast, testicular, and prostate cancer increase significantly when they are not altered at an early age. The following pages have detailed information on this:

Dog Spay

Dog Neuter

Cat Spay

Cat Neuter

Rabbit Neuter

Rabbit Spay

We tend to see cancer more commonly in our geriatric patients.

This page has links to some of the more common cancer’s we see in animals. Click on any photo to enlarge it.


Dogs and Cats

Intestine

Kidney

Liver

Lymph node

Mammary (breast)

Mast cell

Spleen (hemangiosarcoma)

Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)

Ferrets

Adrenal disease

Insulinoma

Liver

Rodents

Mammary (breast)

Ovarian

Reptiles

Tegu oral tumor

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Sarcoptic Mange (Scabies)

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Sarcoptic mange (cats get a version called notoedric mange ), commonly know as scabies, is caused by an external parasite called Sarcoptes scabei  that burrows deep into the skin. It commonly occurs in dogs, not so commonly in cats, unless is it notoedric mange), also occurs in foxes, ferrets, rabbits, sheep, goats, cattle, pigs and guinea pigs.

It is contagious to other pets and occurs in many different animals. It causes intense itchiness, especially affecting the ear margins, elbows, and face. People can pick up this disease from their pet and show symptoms of itching, but it goes away by itself in many cases and usually  does not require treatment in most cases (always check with your doctor).

It is important to note that the diagnosis of this skin condition, like most skin conditions, cannot be made just by looking at a pet. Diagnostic tests are mandatory to arrive at a correct diagnosis and achieve a satisfactory outcome to therapy. Stating that an animal looks “mangey” is not the same thing as making a positive diagnosis of mange. Pets that have Ringworm , Demodex. and allergies can look like they have Sarcoptic mange.

 Life Cycle

This ectoparasite spends it life cycle of 14-21 days entirely on the host it has infected.  Overcrowded conditions increase risk for transmission. Stress from many sources can also be a factor.

History

The following history for an itching pet with sarcoptes usually involves:

  • Severe itching that is non-seasonal
  • Recently adopted or boarded pet
  • Multiple pets in the house
  • Humans in the same house that are itching with red lesions on their skin.

 Symptoms

In dogs most of the symptoms involve intense itching at the ear margins, elbows, hocks and abdomen. Less common areas of itching can include the face and feet. This itching will inflame the skin and cause scabs, with a secondary bacterial infection (pyoderma) occurring due to the trauma. Some pets will shake their ears excessively and cause an aural hematoma (swollen ear). These symptoms can mimic those of other skin conditions, so the rules of the diagnostic process should be carefully adhered to.

Other symptoms that might be present sometimes include:

  • Lethargy and depression
  • Lack of appetite
  • Weight loss

Cat mange (notoedres cati)

In cats, sarcoptic mange is caused by a mite called notoedres cati, a microscopic ectoparasite that burrows in to the skin. It is not as itchy, and occurs more often on the face, ears, paws, and tail.

This is a highly magnified view of notoedres cati as it appears under the microscope

This cat has scabies, but you can’t say that for sure just by looking at it

The top of his head shows how irritating the problem is, especially at the ears

Diagnosis

The primary way to diagnose sarcoptic mange is to do a skin scraping where the patches of alopecia occur. Finding these mites, their eggs, or their feces,  under the microscope can be very difficult in this disease. a pet that has the symptoms of Sarcoptic mange and is negative on skin scrapings for the parasite can still have the disease. In these cases we commonly treat for the disease anyway, because the treatment is highly effective.

In rare cases we will do a skin biopsy, which is a great way to rule out other diseases that have similar symptoms.

Other diseases in dogs that mimic scabies include:

  • Folliculitis
  • Malassezia (fungus)
  • Allergies
  • Contact dermatitis
  • Cancer
  • Pemphigus (immune system disease)

Diseases in cats that mimic scabies include:

  • Demodectic mange
  • Otodectic mange
  • Cheyletellia
  • Herpes dermatitis
  • Allergies

Treatment

The usual treatment for Sarcoptic mange is a drug called Ivermectin. It is an injection given weekly for up to 6 weeks. Most pets decrease their scratching rapidly after the first injection. Some dogs, particularly Collies, Shetland Sheepdogs, and Old English Sheepdogs, do not tolerate the medication well. In these pets we use a dip called Lyme Sulfur that is also very effective.

The disadvantage to the dip is the odor it causes and the staining of white coated animals. All pets in a household should be treated regardless of whether they are showing symptoms or not. Pets that have secondary skin infections from the trauma might also be put on antibiotics. Other common treatments include Revolution (selamectin) topical.

Other pets in the same household are commonly treated if they are in close contact. Treating the environment is usually not needed if all pets in the house are treated.

Some pets itch more in the first few days of treatment due to dying mites. These pets can be put on low dose cortisone for a few days in a reducing dose to get over this phase.

This dog has scabies

This is a picture from the dog above 7 days after its first Ivermectin injection

Prevention

Good nutrition and plenty of play and exercise are always important to maintain the proper balance to fight off disease. All pets in a household that has a pet diagnosed with this disease should also be treated.

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Anesthesia

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One of the most important tools available to veterinarians to thoroughly and painlessly treat pets is the advent of modern day anesthetics. These anesthetic agents allow us to sedate and anesthetize a wide variety of animals with negligible chance of serious side effects.

The lack of significant complications from anesthesia is due to a combination of expertise, thorough pre-anesthetic testing, and state of the art anesthetic and monitoring equipment. We are equipped to anesthetize any pet from a finch that weighs 15 grams (it takes 454 grams to make up one pound), to pets that weigh several hundred pounds. We are also particularly proficient in anesthetizing senior pets and pets with medical problems like liver and kidney disease.

The goals of anesthesia are to minimize anxiety and eliminate pain. In addition, from the surgical point of view, anesthesia allows profound muscle relaxation. This is helpful in every surgery because the procedure will go quicker and incisions can be made smaller when the muscles are relaxed. In certain types of surgery like fracture repair, this muscle relaxation is crucial for success.

It is normal for you to have concern if your pet is about to undergo a procedure that requires anesthesia. Because of this fact, we invite you to be a part of our anesthetic team. Your primary responsibility is to let us know of your concern. You will have access to your doctor to discuss any of your concerns and to set up a custom protocol for your pet, taking its specific needs into consideration. Only when you are comfortable with the situation will we proceed any further. Also, to alleviate your concern on the day of actual anesthesia, we will call you immediately after your pet wakes up, if you so desire. Please leave a number where we can reach you on the day of surgery.

We have a short video on monitoring pets during anesthesia. You will need QuickTIme from www.apple.com to be able to view it.

Precautions

One of the best precautions we take to minimize the risk of anesthesia it to perform pre-anesthetic diagnostic tests. A pet can pass its pre anesthetic physical exam and still have significant internal problems, so it is important that we perform more than just a physical exam. This is because animals cannot tell us of their problems, have high pain thresholds in comparison to people, and have defensive mechanisms allowing them to hide symptoms. Pre-anesthetic diagnostic tests are designed to alert us to internal problems that are occurring without any symptoms.

Those pets that have infections (especially tooth infections) are put on antibiotics ahead of time. They make pets feel better, and help support internal organs.

Older pets or those with medical problems are given intravenous (IV) fluids prior to and during the anesthetic procedure. Giving fluids prior to the surgery greatly reduces anesthetic risk. This is particularly important in older pets and those with kidney or liver disease. Most pets that have significant dental disease will also be given IV fluids.


Injectable Anesthesia

Injectable anesthetics are used for many purposes. One of their primary uses is to sedate pets before giving the actual anesthesia (called pre-anesthetic). By sedating ahead of time we dramatically minimize anxiety, cause a smoother recovery, and minimize how much anesthetic we need to administer during the actual procedure. In addition, some injectable anesthetics minimize vomiting, a common problem when waking up from anesthetic.

Little Bit is receiving an intravenous injection of an anesthetic before his teeth cleaning. It is being given through an I.V. catheter in the cephalic vein of the forearm.

Injectable anesthetics are also used to give complete anesthesia for short periods of time. This is used for C-sections and minor surgical procedures. Injectable anesthetics are ideal to sedate a pet for radiographs (x-rays).

As new anesthetic agents evolve, the trend is towards using injectable anesthetics more and more for complete surgical anesthesia. They are very effective, very safe, and allow for rapid recovery from anesthesia. They also protect the environment because there are no anesthetic gases vented into the atmosphere.

The primary anesthetic in this category is called Propofol. It induces anesthesia rapidly, and pets wake up almost immediately.

Gas Anesthesia

The mainstay for general anesthesia is gas anesthesia because it is very safe and highly controllable. We use the safest and most effective gas anesthesia available, called Isoflurane. It is so safe it can be used in creatures as small as tiny birds.

Gas anesthesia requires specialized equipment and training. Several precision components are used to administer and monitor anesthesia:

Oxygen

All pets put under gas anesthesia are given 100% oxygen from the moment they are anesthetized until they wake up, dramatically increasing the safety of the procedure.

We have a special machine in surgery that generates 100% oxygen

As a backup,  oxygen is stored in large tanks under high pressure. The oxygen in the tanks is delivered to the anesthetic machine via special piping throughout the hospital. This allows us to have anesthetic machines in several hospital locations. A pet can be brought into radiology after its surgery and still be kept under gas anesthesia while the surgeon reviews post operative radiographs to ensure everything is in order. This is especially helpful when orthopedic surgery is performed.

Endotracheal Tube

With rare exceptions, oxygen is delivered to your pet by a breathing tube (endotracheal tube) in its windpipe. It is the preferred method to administer oxygen because it is very efficient, will prevent any vomitus from entering the trachea (vomiting rarely happens because of fasting and pre-anesthetic sedation), and allows us to gently inflate the lungs during surgery so that work at maximum efficiency. Besides oxygen, the anesthetic gas (Isoflurane) is also administered through the endotracheal tube. Medications can even be administered via this special tube.

After Little Bit was given an injectable anesthetic a breathing tube was placed in his windpipe and Isoflurane was administered.

We can easily inflate your pet’s lungs by gently squeezing the bag connected to the tube and monitoring the amount of pressure we are exerting with a gauge on the anesthetic machine. Each size and species of pet requires a different sized endotracheal tube. The tube is not removed from your pet until it is literally waking up. This ensures that the swallowing reflex is present and your pet is now safely able to breathe on its own.

This x-ray shows the breathing tube (follow the arrow) as it passes over the tongue and down the trachea (windpipe).

"Chase Summerville" 2/2/98

Vaporizer

An instrument called a precision vaporizer is used to deliver the anesthetic gas within the oxygen. It is a very precise instrument allowing us to make fine adjustments in anesthetic level. Without this vaporizer we would not have the wide safety margin that we currently enjoy.

For most surgeries we administer the anesthetic at a setting of 1-2 %. This small percent of anesthetic, added to the oxygen the pet is breathing, is all that is needed to achieve complete surgical anesthesia. Before the surgical procedure is finished the anesthetic is lowered before it is turned off completely. As the surgeon is finishing the procedure your pet is in the beginning stages of waking up. This is another way we minimize anesthetic risk.

Monitoring

During the procedure your pet will be monitored in several ways. One of the best monitors is the surgeon because he is literally visualizing the blood in the circulatory system. Any change in the blood is readily noticed because pets that are breathing 100% oxygen should have bright red blood.

Also, we have an anesthetist nurse in the room monitoring anesthesia. She monitors oxygen flow and anesthetic settings on the precision vaporizer, along with heart rate and respiratory rate. She also uses several tools to aid her in keeping a close watch on important anesthetic parameters:

All of our patients, especially the smaller ones like this guinea pig, are kept on warm water water blankets to prevent hypothermia before during, and after any anesthetic procedure.

Surgery-GPigWaterBlanket Surgery-GPigWaterBlanket1

 

Anesthetic Monitor

This highly accurate and sensitive monitor gives us detailed information on your pets physiologic status while under anesthesia.

It is calibrated prior to surgery to ensure accuracy

Esophageal Stethoscope

Our anesthetist technician can also use an esophageal stethoscope to listen to the heart. This sensitive instrument is passed into your pet’s esophagus while under anesthesia and placed right at the level of the heart, thus greatly enhancing our ability to hear the heart and detect any problems.

Pulse Oximeter

The portable pulse oximeter is an instrument that measures the oxygen saturation of you pet’s red blood cells (to be more specific, its hemoglobin). It is an extremely sensitive instrument that gives us an indication of problems that may be arising long before your pet suffers any ill effects. In addition to measuring oxygen saturation, it measures heart rate, pulse character, and respiration.

This instrument does its magic by measuring the hemoglobin that is oxygenated and comparing it to the hemoglobin that is not oxygenated. It does this by shining a light on an artery, and then measures how much of this light is absorbed. It gives us an answer in PaO2– the partial atmospheric pressure of oxygen

This pulse oximeter shows a pet with an oxygen saturation of 94%, a heart rate of 157. It is breathing 27 times per minute, and its heart rate is steady.

This is Little Bit having his teeth cleaned under general anesthesia. The pulse oximeter is attached to his rear leg.

The pulse oximeter has several different types of sensors that can be attached in various locations depending on the procedure being performed.The pulse oximeter can also be used on pets that are not anesthetized. It is useful for pets that are having difficulty breathing (dyspnea) from many different causes. It is also used to monitor pets that are in a state of shock. One of the most common reasons for pets to be presented to us in a state of shock is from trauma, especially being hit by a car (HBC).

The esophageal stethoscope and the pulse oximeter can be used simultaneously. In this dog, undergoing a neuter operation, Denise, our nurse anesthetist, is taking a reading with both instruments.

The blue tube on the anesthetic machine suctions exhaled gases from our patient and vents them outside the building. The white particles in the canister absorb exhaled carbon dioxide, and the round gauge measures the pressure at which oxygen is being introduced into the endotracheal tube when the technician inflates the bag.

Techa 1

We have a short Quicktime movie showing a pulse oximeter in action on one of our volunteers. The top number is the oxygen saturation, the bottom number is the heart rate. The vertical bar gives us a clue as to the strength of the heart beat. Click on the link below.

Pulse Oximeter

Capillary Refill Time

To complement these high tech methods of monitoring, our anesthetist technician uses several hands-on techniques as a backup. One of the easiest of these is called capillary refill time (CRT). By pressing on the mucous membranes in the mouth, and noting how long it takes for the blanched area to turn pink again, we get a basic assessment of your pets cardiovascular status. A normal pet’s pink color returns within 2 seconds. This technique is used in other situations besides anesthetic monitoring. It is especially helpful when a pet is in shock or is dehydrated.

Blood Pressure Monitor

We also monitor the blood pressure when pets are under anesthesia for the longer surgical procedures. This is done with our anesthetic monitor. Our hypertension page has a video of the doppler blood pressure monitor in action when we use it in an exam room.

Pain Medication

We complete the anesthetic process by giving your pet a pain injection before it wakes up from the anesthetic. Since the gas anesthesia has a small amount of residual analgesia (ability to kill pain), the pain shot kicks in as the gas anesthetic is wearing off. This allows for a very smooth and pain free recovery. Those of us that have had even minor surgery know how important pain medication is after a procedure. This pain injection will keep your pet calm its first night home from any surgery.

Local Anesthesia

Another excellent way to prevent the pain encountered when your pet first wakes up is to use a long acting local anesthetic at the incision site. We administer it prior to completion of the surgery, and its affects last for 6 hours.

We use the long acting version of this drug which eliminates pain for up to 8 hours.

We even have a local anesthesia patch that is used in some cases to bring long term relief for several days if needed.

Pain Patch

We also use Duragesic patches for general pain control in the more serious cases. It is preferable to apply it 12 hours before the surgery for maximum effect postoperatively. It provides pain relief for 3 days. It is important to make sure that no children or other pets are allowed to contact the patch in any way. Bring your pet back to us for proper removal and disposal.

The patch is applied in different locations depending on the surgery. Wrapped around one of the legs and between the shoulder blades are common locations. One of our nurses is applying it in this picture using gloves to ensure she does not come into contact with the active ingredient.

If we put it on the leg it is covered with a bandage. We will commonly staple the patch to the skin if we put it between the shoulder blades. It will be bandaged for protection and to minimize the chance of contact with other pets and children. Please return in 3 days for us to remove it and dispose of it properly.

To ensure your pets complete safety, it will stay with us for at least several hours after it is awake. We will verify the pain medication is working and there are no ill effects from the anesthetic administered. It will also allow your pet to completely wake up and walk normally in a controlled environment where it cannot hurt itself. Our technical staff monitors your pet post operatively until we are certain it is ready to go home.

Long term pain control at home is also important during the next several days. We will routinely send you home with an anti-inflammatory medication or pain suspension for long term pain control. The two most common medications we use are Rimadyl and Torbutrol suspension.

Laser Surgery

Even though it is not an actual pain medication, using our carbon dioxide laser when indicated during a surgical procedure dramatically minimizes pain because it decreases inflammation, swelling, and cauterizes nerve endings. By using the laser and stopping the pain cascade before it even begins there is a dramatic influence on decreasing post operative pain.

Returning Home after anesthesia

When you bring your pet home after anesthesia it is helpful to follow some common sense suggestions:

Keep contact with other pets and children to a minimum for at least the first 12 hours. Confine it to an area where it cannot hurt itself  because it may not be steady on its feet for up to 24 hours. It might be groggy the first night due to the pain injection it was given.

Use pain medication as prescribed and keep your pet in a warm and quiet area. You can spend time giving unlimited TLC

Even though your pet has probably been fasted for the anesthesia, feed it only a small amount of food and water when first returning home. Give it more later if it eats well and does not vomit (emesis). Most pets return to a normal appetite within 24 hours. If your pet has not fully recovered from the anesthetic by the next day then please call our office.

Please call us in the evening if you have any questions when your pet returns home from surgery or any anesthetic procedure.

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Worms (Internal Parasites)

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The study of parasites is called parasitology. It is an important discipline because internal parasites cause death and disease worth billions of dollars in animals each year. These parasites have highly evolved life cycles that make their elimination impossible. In addition, many internal parasites affect people with the potential for serious consequences.

Dogs and cats (especially puppies and kittens) are routinely infected with internal parasites, sometimes without apparent evidence of the infestation until it is too late. This means that a pet can have internal parasites even though the fecal sample is negative. It is suspected that internal parasites predispose your pet to IBD (Inflammatory Bowel Disease) later in life.

Fortunately, we have effective medications to treat most parasites. Many of the medications we use to treat internal parasites, called anthelmintics, treat more than one parasite. The advent of these broad spectrum anthelminitcs makes treatment much more effective. We recommend all dogs and cats get a treatment for internal parasites every 6 months.

This best method for treatment is to use flea products on a monthly basis that also kill internal parasites and prevent heart worms. We have several medications, some oral and some topical, to achieve this.

This section will discuss internal parasites that are commonly found in dogs and cats in our area. This includes:

  • Tapeworms
  • Roundworms
  • Hookworms
  • Whipworms
  • Coccidia
  • Giardia

These internal parasites differ from external parasites, which usually affect the skin and ears of dogs and cats. Click here to learn more about external parasites.


Symptoms

Symptoms manifested by pets that are infected with internal parasites can vary, and depend on a pet’s age, nutritional status, parasite load, duration of infestation, etc. One of the most common symptoms of internal parasitism is diarrhea. Other symptoms include poor appetite, lethargy, coughing, and abdominal distention. Some pets don’t show any symptoms while others can die from their infestation. Internal parasites tend to infest older and younger animals most commonly. Internal parasites can also make a pet more susceptible to other diseases. It is not uncommon for a puppy with Parvo virus to have internal parasites simultaneously.

Due to the prevalence of internal parasites in dogs and cats, their lack of symptoms in some cases, and the potential for humans to become infested also, your pets feces should be checked for internal parasites twice a year. Dogs and cats that are outside and exposed to other animals should have their feces checked more often. Routine worming should be performed on all dogs and cats every 6 months, even if the stool check for parasites is negative.


Diagnosis

The majority of internal parasites are diagnosed by microscopic examination of the feces for eggs that are released by the adult female in your pet’s intestine. The number of eggs released in a given fecal sample can be variable, sometimes there aren’t any even though your pet has an adult female parasite in its intestines. This means that a negative fecal report does not guarantee that your pet is free from internal parasites. In many cases we need to run numerous samples to feel comfortable that your pet is free of internal parasites. In some cases our doctor’s will treat for a specific parasite, even on a negative fecal sample, when they feel there is a likelihood of infestation, because some internal parasites eggs are notoriously hard to detect.

In some parasites a diagnosis is made by observation of the mature parasite in your pet’s feces or during an autopsy in your pet’s intestines. This is especially true for Tapeworms. Tapeworm eggs are difficult to detect during microscopic fecal analysis, so observation of the actual worm is how they are routinely diagnosed.

The two primary methods of fecal analysis are direct observation and fecal flotation. In direct observation a smear is made of some fecal material on a microscope slide and the slide is analyzed by one of our nurses for parasite eggs. It is used to detect eggs that don’t show up well during the fecal flotation.

Fecal flotation is the most accurate way to detect most internal parasites. A sample of fresh feces is put into a special solution that causes any eggs that might be present to float to the top and adhere to a cover slip. The cover slip is put on a microscope slide for analysis. This concentration of eggs substantially increases the chance of finding any eggs that might be present. Some eggs, notably Tapeworm eggs, dissolve during this process and might be undetected. This is the reason you can see Tapeworms in your pets stool yet the fecal analysis came back negative.

We have sanitary containers for you to use to obtain a fecal sample from your pet. Once the sample is obtained it should be kept cool until we analyze it. Analysis should be within 12 hours to increase accuracy.

The flotation solution has been added to the fecal container and a cover slip has been placed on the top to collect any eggs that float to the surface after a 5 minute wait

The cover slip is put on a microscope slide and carefully scanned for the eggs of any parasite. High magnification is needed because the eggs are microscopic in size.


Treatment

Internal parasites have very sophisticated life cycles that can make treatment difficult. Some of these life cycles involve mandatory maturation processes in other animals, including insects. Specific treatment modalities are set up to address these life cycles and will be discussed for each individual parasite in the following sections. It is important to follow these treatment regimens precisely.

Some parasites can only be controlled, not eliminated. In these cases it is important to check your pet’s feces routinely and to use medication on a long term basis.

There are new treatments for internal parasites that are very broad spectrum. They kill a wide variety of parasites, and are the medications we use as a routine wormer.

Revolution, will kill fleas, heartwormsear mites, and even internal parasites. We recommend it for cats.

Trifexis kills internal parasites, heartworms, and fleas, and is recommended for dogs.

Please ask our receptionist for brochures on these products.


Tapeworms

By far the most common internal parasite we encounter is Tapeworms. The scientific name for the Tapeworm we encounter in our area is called Dipylidium.

Life cycle

The source of the infestation is a flea that has been swallowed by your pet or a cat that eats infected rodents. The flea gets the Tapeworm in its system by swallowing it during its larval stages, when the larvae eat the eggs that have been passed from pets that are already infested with Tapeworms.

The lifecycle of the Tapeworm is simple compared to other internal parasites

Symptoms

In spite of their prevalence Tapeworms are not a significant cause of disease in dogs and cats. Most pets do not have any symptoms, and if symptoms are present, are mild in nature. Some pets will itch at their anus or scoot on the ground when the worms cause irritation as they pass.

Diagnosis

Most Tapeworms are diagnosed by visualizing the worm in your pets feces, crawling around its anus, or in its bedding. Tapeworms segments crawling on your dog’s anus might cause scooting, although full anal sacs are a much more common cause of scooting. They come in long attachments that usually break off into individual pieces when they exit from your pet. They usually look like pieces of white rice and turn yellow after they have been out of the body for a while.

This is a packet of Tapeworm eggs as viewed under a microscope. It is rare for us to see them in this packet because the fecal flotation solution causes this packet to burst.

 Treatment

Several medications are available that are highly effective at ridding you pet of Tapeworms. The most common treatment is an oral medication that rids your pet of all Tapeworms within 24 hours. This medication also kills rounds, hooks, and whipworms. It does nothing to prevent your pet from re-infecting itself. Proper flea control does.

Prevention

Since fleas are directly responsible for this infestation their control is apparent. We recommend advantage and Program for safe, economical, convenient, and highly effective flea prevention. A new product, called Revolution, will kill fleas, heartworms, ear mites, and even internal parasites. Please ask our receptionist for a brochure.

Public Health Significance

Children can pick up Tapeworms from eating fleas, but it rarely causes any problem. Other species of Tapeworms exist that have significant potential to cause serious disease in people. Fortunately, we do not encounter them in our local area in dogs and cats.

 Roundworms

A common parasite of dogs and cats, especially puppies and kittens, is Roundworms. The scientific name for their group is called ascarids. We routinely treat puppies and kittens for this parasite for 2 reasons. The first is their prevalence, the second is their potential to infest humans. The larval form of this parasite has the potential to cause serious disease in children. Fortunately it is a rare problem, and can be prevented by worming all puppies and kittens early in life. It is all prevented by monthly use of flea and heart worm prevention products like Trifexis for dogs and Revolution for cats, since these products also kill roundworms.

Life cycle

The life cycle of this parasite almost ensures that a puppy or a kitten will be exposed. They can get it from their mother while they are in the uterus (dogs), during nursing, and through contamination with infected feces. Larval forms of this parasite migrate through internal organs, get coughed up and swallowed, and become mature parasites in the small intestines. Intermediate hosts like rodents can become infected by eating eggs, and can then infect a dog or cat when they are eaten. Some larvae migrate to the tissues of internal organs and remain dormant until pregnancy where they become active and infect the developing puppies in the uterus.

 Symptoms

Common symptoms are a distended abdomen and diarrhea. Some puppies and kittens will be vomiting, lethargic and not eating well, while others will not show any symptoms. On rare occasions the parasite load can be so heavy that the intestines become obstructed. Coughing, fever, nasal discharge and even pneumonia can occur in pups that have large numbers of larvae migrating through their respiratory tract.

Diagnosis

In some cases the Roundworm will be present in your pet’s feces, vomitus or crawling around its ansu. This is not a consistent finding, and worms that might be present one day might not be there the next.

It looks like a curled up piece of spaghetti

The vast majority of Roundworm infestations are diagnosed on fecal analysis for eggs. Young puppies can be infected before the eggs of the parasite appear in the feces.

This is one type of Roundworm egg when viewed under the microscope. The thick membrane around the eggs prevent them from drying out when they are laid in the environment.

 Treatment

There are several effective treatments for Roundworms. We can easily treat your pet with an oral version given during a routine office visit. It has to be retreated in 2 weeks due to the migrating larvae since the medication does not kill the larvae. Some pets require several more treatments for a full cure. If you keep your pet on Trifexis or Revolution year round you are treating for this problem monthly. This is the best way to go.

Prevention

Roundworm eggs can remain viable for a long time in the environment. Children will get this parasite by eating dirt contaminated with the eggs, therefore cleaning up your pet’s feces immediately, and eliminating exposure to the feces of other animals when your pet goes for a walk, are important treatment modalities. Litter pans should be changed frequently and washed thoroughly and then allowed to dry in the sun. Keeping cats indoors also eliminates exposure to the feces of infected pets and the eating of infected rodents.

Public Health Significance

Children are of particular vulnerability to infestation because of their propensity to put things in their mouths and their attractions towards puppies. areas that might be contaminated with dog or cat feces should be off limits to children. This might include public areas such as parks or playgrounds. Even though these infestations in children are relatively uncommon, if they occur there can be significant damage to the internal organs like the liver, heart, brain, lungs, and eyes. This reason alone is why all puppies and kittens should be routinely treated for Roundworms, whether or not their fecal exam indicates they have parasites. also, teach your children to wash their hands frequently after handling pets, and not to put anything unnecessary in thier mouths.

Hookworms

Hookworms are blood sucking parasites that live in the small intestine. The scientific name for the Hookworm we encounter in our area is called Ancylostoma. They can be very pathogenic and even cause death due to anemia and low protein level.

Life cycle

Hookworms are spread by eating infected larvae that are in the environment. These infective larvae can also penetrate the skin and enter the blood stream where they mature into adult Hookworms in the small intestine. Puppies can also get infected while nursing or in the uterus prior to birth. Some Hookworm larvae migrate to muscles where they serve as a source of future infections.

 Symptoms

Pets with Hookworms have the potential to be very ill,especially in dogs. Symptoms include lethargy, dark stools or diarrhea, weakness and vomiting. In severe cases they are anemic and debilitated, especially the older and younger pets. The larvae might even irritate the skin when they penetrate between the toes and pads.

Diagnosis

Adult Hookworms are small so they are usually not seen passed in the feces. This diagnosis is made primarily by finding the distinctive egg in your pet’s feces. Any pet that is anemic should have its feces checked for this parasite.

These eggs are more oval than Roundworms, and the membrane is thinner

 Treatment

Infected pets might require hospitalization and even a blood transfusion if their symptoms are severe. There are different types of worming medications used, some require retreatment several weeks after the initial treatment because of the larvae that migrate through the body. All require checking your pet’s feces to make sure the parasite has been eliminated. Long term treatment and surveillance in the form of fecal exams are necessary. Dogs with chronic problems are put on heartworm preventive medication on a monthly basis since this medication also kills Hookworms. Any dog put on heartworm preventive medication needs to be checked for heartworm disease before we start preventive medication.

If you keep your pet on Trifexis or Revolution year round you are treating for this problem monthly. This is the best way to go.

Prevention

Fecal exams should be performed frequently on pets that have a history of Hookworm infestation. Prompt removal of feces helps prevent contamination of the yard with larvae. Larvae are killed in cold climates when exposed to freezing temperatures.

Public Health Significance

Hookworm larvae can penetrate the skin of people and cause significant irritation. These larvae can migrate through the body and cause damage to internal organs. Just like in Roundworms discussed above, puppies should be routinely treated for this parasite at a young age.

Whipworms

Whipworms are blood sucking parasites that live in the large intestine, usually only in dogs. They are called Whipworms because they have a slender end and a thick end, hence the appearance of a whip. The scientific name for the Whipworm we encounter in our area is called Trichuris. They can be as pathogenic as Hookworms, and also cause death due to anemia and low protein level.

Life cycle

Female Whipworms lay eggs in the environment that eventually turn into larvae. Pets ingest these larvae when they ingest soil that is contaminated. These larvae take 3 months to develop into adults capable of causing disease.

 Symptoms

Symptoms of Whipworm infestation include chronic diarrhea, anemia, and weight loss.

Diagnosis

Like most internal parasites Whipworms are diagnosed by looking for the eggs in the feces. They are oval in shape and have a plug at each end that aids in identification. Their thick membrane gives them significant protection. The eggs are shed intermittently, so a negative fecal sample does not guarantee that your dog is free of Whipworms. Adult Whipworms can sometimes be visualized when an endoscope is passed into the rectum of a pet with chronic diarrhea.

 


Treatment

Various oral medication are also used to treat Whipworms. Treatment is commonly repeated in 3 weeks and 3 months due to the life cycle of this parasite. If you keep your pet on Trifexis or Revolution year round you are treating for this problem monthly. This is the best way to go.

Prevention

Control of reinfections is difficult because eggs that have been laid in the environment are very resistant. Feces need to be rechecked and a long term plan for surveillance and treatment needs to be initiated.

Public Health Significance

Human infections with this parasite might occur, although this controversial. Common sense dictates prompt removal of feces from your pet’s environment and washing your hands any time there is a potential exposure.

Coccidia

Coccidia are not technically a worm, but a protozoan parasite that infect dogs and cats primarily, but can be seen in other species.

Life cycle

Coccidia life cycles are complex and involve many stages of development. Coccidia produce cysts instead of larvae and eggs. Dogs and cats usually get the infection from ingesting the cysts in the environment or eating animals like mice that are already infected.

Symptoms

Symptoms usually occur in young animals and include diarrhea and abdominal pain. These young animals can become severely dehydrated and the infection can be life threatening. This is especially true in pets that are stressed or have other parasites. Many pets, especially the older ones, do not show any symptoms when infected.

Diagnosis

Diagnosis of Coccidia infection is made by identifying the very small eggs in a fecal sample. They can be very difficult to detect due to their small nature and variable shedding by a pet. This is why our doctors will occasionally treat a pet for Coccidia even though the fecal exam is negative for this parasite.

 Treatment

Sulfa type medications or sulfa and antibiotic combinations are used to affect a cure. They need to be given for up to 3 weeks.  There is also a medication that requires only 3 days of treatment. Kittens that are very ill require hospitalization and intravenous fluids to help them fight off the infection.

Prevention

Prompt removal of feces helps prevent continued environmental contamination.

Public Health Significance

A version of Coccidia, called Toxoplasmosis, is of particular significance to pregnant women since it can cause disease in unborn children. The most common source of infection for pregnant women is eating improperly cooked meat (especially pork, lamb, and venison), not necessarily from the feces of cats. In a cat that does have Toxoplasmosis, the eggs that are laid in the environment (litter pan) do not become infective until 24 hours have passed. If the litter pan is cleaned twice daily the eggs will not have time to become infective to pregnant women. Wear gloves when you change the litter pan. Better yet,have someone else clean the litter pan. When you garden you should also wear gloves since stray cats may use the soil as a litter pan. Keeping your cat indoors and not feeding it raw meat will prevent it from getting Toxoplasmosis and passing it on.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention more than 60 million people in the United States are infected with the Toxoplasmosis parasite. Few have symptoms because a healthy immune systems keeps it in check. You may feel like you have the “flu,” swollen lymph glands, or muscle aches and pains that last for a few days to several weeks. However, most people who become infected with toxoplasmosis don’t know it. On the other hand, people with immune system problems, such as those with HIV/AIDS, those taking certain types of chemotherapy, or persons who have recently received an organ transplant, and infants, may develop severe toxoplasmosis, which results in damage to the eye or the brain. Infants who became infected before birth can be born retarded or with several other serious mental or physical problems.

Giardia

Giardia are also protozoal parasites that live in the small intestines. Giarida are found every where in the world, Infection rates are variable, with younger animals having a higher rate of infection. There are various strains that differ in their potential to cause disease. The strain called Giarda lamblis (also called intestinalis or duodenalis) is the primary strain of people, companion animals. and livestock.

This parasite can be found on fecal exams of healthy pets that don’t have any symptoms. It is probably under diagnosed due to the chronic nature of the problem it presents and the difficulty of coming up with a positive diagnosis.

Giardia exists in 2 forms; trophozoites and cysts. The active and motile form, called trophozoites, are the stage which lives in the intestines of an affected mammal. These trophozoites produce non-motile cysts which are shed into the environment. The cysts remain viable in the environment for months, especially in cool and moist areas. They thrive in clear and cool water, a good reason not to drink running water in the outdoors, no matter how pristine it looks. The cysts are killed by freezing, boiling, and extended contact with disinfectants.

It is theorized that giardia make pets prone to food allergies. By interfering with the intestinal lining they let in proteins that stimulate the immune system to cause an allergic reaction.

Life cycle

The cysts in a contaminated environment are transmitted to mammals or birds upon ingestion. Gastric acid and pancreatic enzymes work on these cysts in the stomach and intestines, causing them to release 2 trophozoites. These motile trophozoites attach to the lining of the small intestine where they interfere with digestion. Within 2 weeks they encyst and are passed in the feces to contaminate the environment and await another host.

 Symptoms

In many pets there aren’t any symptoms, while in others that do show symptoms, the problem might resolve by itself. The most susceptible pets are puppies and kittens, pets with other internal parasites, and debilitated pets. Diarrhea that occurs can be severe and can be accompanied by poor appetite and dehydration. Vomiting, weight loss and blood in the stool are occasional symptoms.

Diagnosis

Giardia can be hard to diagnose because the parasite cysts become shriveled in the routine fecal solution that is used to bring eggs to the surface and adhere to the cover slip. Special fecal flotation solutions (zinc sulfate) are a more accurate manner to make the diagnosis. Cysts can be shed intermittently, so several samples are sometimes needed to make this diagnosis.

Fresh fecal samples that are not put in the fecal solution can sometimes show the parasite. We sometimes send fecal solutions to our outside lab for special tests when we suspect the problem yet we don’t find the parasite. Just like Coccidia, our doctors might treat for this disease even on negative fecal samples.

 Treatment

Flagyl is the drug routinely used to treat Giardia, although it does not cure all Giardia infections. The usual course of therapy is for 5 days, although our doctors will vary this dose depending on specific circumstances. Other medications are sometimes used if the Flagyl is not effective. There is no drug that is 100% effective against Giardia.

We recommend treating pets that are positive for Giardia even if they don’t have any symptoms. This helps eliminate environmental contamination, and helps minimize spread to people. If one pet in a household has Giardia we recommend treating all pets.

Prevention

Giardia cysts in a kennel are relatively easy to destroy with routine disinfectants, and are susceptible to drying and heat. Once an environment like a lawn is contaminated though, it can be almost impossible to eliminate this parasite.

  1. Treat all in contact animals in the household.
  2. Recommend to bathe all pets every 7-14 days with mild hypoallergenic  shampoo like Hilyte or and oatmeal shampoo.  If unable to bathe then to wipe down with separate clean damp cloths/towels once a day or once every other day especially around the anal area (please save this area for last).
  3. Wipe feet and anal area  of affected pet at least once a day especially after going outside with a clean damp cloth/towel.  OK to use baby wipes around anal area.
  4. Prevent licking on surfaces outside, prevent from eating grass, and prevent from drinking water from communal water dishes at dog parks or from ponds or ditches as much as possible.
  5. Give bottle water or filtered water or water that has been boiled.  This filters should filter out up to Giardia and Cryptococcus organisms from tap water.  Boiling the water  will kill any organisms present in the tap water.
  6. Thoroughly clean food and water dishes daily with soap and hot water and sterilize the food and water dishes weekly.
  7. Pick up feces immediately or as soon as possible.  Recommend to thoroughly clean out litter boxes daily and to disinfect and sterilize the boxes at least once a week.
  8. Once done with medications bathe all pets or at least bathe both dogs and wipe down all feline pets in the house with separate clean damp cloths/towels. Also clean and vacuum entire house and clean all bedding.
  9. Once done with course of medications please bring a fecal sample the same day or the next day that the medications are finished.  If the fecal results are negative then do another fecal analysis in 30 days post-treatment.  If the fecal results are still  positive for Giardia then will recommend to proceed with other possible causes of this persistently high infestation with Giardia i.e. immune system problems that are preventing her from getting rid of this protozoal parasite.

Good nutrition, avoiding overcrowding, general parasite control, and proper sanitation procedures are all critical in prevention. Cleaning up feces on a daily basis goes a long way to preventing contamination.

A vaccine available for dogs is very helpful in persistent infections

Public Health Significance

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Giardia is one of the most common causes of waterborne diseases in humans in the United States. Many people get Giardia from other people and and contaminated water. Symptoms in people include diarrhea, abdominal cramps and nausea. They appear within 2 weeks of exposure to the parasite.

Exposure comes from many sources. They include swallowing water from swimming pools, lakes, rivers or streams that have been contaminated with animal or human feces. Fruits and vegetables that have not been washed (with Giardia free water!), along with accidental ingestion from hands contaminated by using toys, bathrooms, changing tables, etc., are also sources of infection. This emphasizes the importance of routine washing of hands. Boiling drinking water for one minute will kill this parasite.

We routinely treat pets with Giardia in their feces, even if they are not showing any symptoms, because of the potential for people to pick up this disease. Washing your hands frequently after touching your pet and bathing your pet frequently will help minimize exposure. We have a vaccine for dogs that do not respond to routine treatment. This will help prevent human exposure.

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Rabbit Spay

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A common surgery performed on female rabbits is a spay. The medical term is an ovariohysterectomy (removal of ovaries and uterus), abbreviated as an OVH. Like many females, rabbits are prone to cancer of the uterus, so removal of the uterus at a young age will prevent this problem.

The following areas contain graphic pictures of an actual spay performed at the hospital. It may not be suitable for all ages.

Uterine Cancer

These two pictures give examples of why we spay rabbits.

The first picture of the uterus is a healthy one, the second one has cancer. The cancerous uterus was removed only when this rabbit became ill.

Preparation

Pre-surgical preparation is a big part of our surgery. Our patient has already had its pre-anesthetic physical exam by our surgeon, and it has been anesthetized. You can learn  more about anesthesia.

After we clip the hair, the first step in preparation is the initial cleansing of the skin with a special surgical grade disinfectant

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While our patient is being prepped our surgeon is doing the same thing

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Her head is at the top and she is laying on her back. The black arrow at lower left is pointing to an instrument we use to monitor the oxygen in the blood.

While all of this activity is going on our surgeon is busy getting ready for the surgery

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Time is of the essence any time a pet is under anesthesia, so our surgeon gets all instruments ready while our anesthetist is prepping our patient

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All of our surgeries are closely watched  using our surgical monitor. These instruments detect a problem before it becomes detrimental to our patient.

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Once our surgeon is comlfortable everything is in order our patient is draped and the procedure begins

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Surgery

After the skin incision is made a second incision is made in the abdominal muscles. There is a precise location for this incision, called the linea alba. Incisions here have minimal bleeding and sufficient strength to hold sutures when being closed at the end of the surgery.

Rabbits have minimal fat under the skin, so the skin incision is delicately made with a small scalpel blade

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Once the skin has been incised our landmark is a tendinous attachment of the abdominal muscles called the linea alba. It is seen here as the while diagonal line. It is important that we make our abdominal incision here because there is negligible bleeding and this area gives the sutures holding power to prevent a hernia.

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When our surgeon has this landmark properly exposed an incision is made into the abdomen

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This incision is continued with a scissors until it is just big enough to remove the ovaries and uterus

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Once the incision is large enough a special instrument is used to gently bring the ovaries out of the incision

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Of all the different species we spay rabbits have the most delicate tissue. If we are not careful in how we handle the uterine tissue it could tear in our hands, so we are very gentle in our tissue handling

Older rabbits have a significant amount of fat around the ovaries (black arrows) and along the uterus (white arrows). Both ovaries will be removed, and the body of the uterus will be removed at the point of the white horizontal line. The head of the rabbit is towards the top on this view.

Younger rabbits do not have as much fat, although their tissue is more delicate and can tear easily. The head of the rabbit is towards the bottom right in this view, opposite of the view above.

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The ovary is pulled out of the abdomen and clamped for removal. You can see the ovary as the small horizontal cream colored tissue in the center above the clamp. It is removed completely during the surgery.

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Special care is taken to make sure there is no bleeding after the ovary is removed. Several clamps are used, and several sutures (called ligatures) are put on the vessels that supply blood to the ovary. The next 3 views show our surgeon in the process of accomplishing this before the ovary is removed.

The unseen ovary is buried in the fat at the top, the surgeon is putting  ligatures on the blood supply to the ovary

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The first ligature has been placed

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The second one is in the process

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Once both ovaries and uterine body are ligated and removed the incision in the linea alba is suture. A special non-reactive and strong suture is used, that will slowly dissolve over several month.

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Our surgeon takes extra care to make sure they are put in properly. If not, we can get a hernia and intestinal organs can come out.

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The final row of sutures in the linea

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The final row of sutures in the skin. This will be removed at 10-14 days

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Before our patient wakes up we use the companion laser to minimize post operative swelling and enhance the healing process. Any natural thing we can do to aid the healing process is part of our approach of treating our patients like we want to be treated if we are in a similar situation. This includes the pain injection we give before our patient wakes up, and continues to the pain medication used at home. Far too often people have the attitude that pets don’t have pain because we just don’t see it. We prefer to err on the side of more pain medication than less pain medication.

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Our nursing staff closely monitors all patients post operatively

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Rabbit Skin Conditions

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Rabbits are prone to skin infections that can be difficult to control. Their skin is very thin and prone to trauma. They harbor a bacteria called Pasteurella than can complicate any infection they pick up. This page shows the case of a rabbit named Roger that has a serious skin infection due to a maggot infestation. You won’t have to look at any maggots, but you will see a serious skin infection in the pictures that follow-these pictures are not suitable for all age groups.

Maggots are the larvae of flies that hatch when flies lay eggs on an open wound. In the warmer climates, especially in the summer, we see this condition. It occurs when rabbits soil their fur, sometimes from diarrhea, and set up a moist environment that attracts flies.

A way to prevent diarrhea in rabbits is to feed minimal amounts of rabbit pellets. The majority of their diet should consist of timothy hay and timothy hay pellets. The higher fiber content of these foods keeps their teeth worn down properly and aids in digestion, since they require a diet very high in fiber compared to other pets.

Presentation

This rabbit was referred to us from another veterinarian. They initially cleaned up the wound, put the rabbit on oral antibiotics, and put stainless steel staples in the skin to suture the open wound that was present. This is the way we typically handle most wounds. Unfortunately, some rabbits don’t respond to this suturing, especially if it is not done immediately. As a result the wound can fester under the sutures and become a serious infection. Rabbit pus is tenacious and does not easily drain from the body like other mammals. As a result, it is difficult to work on these infections in the normal manner.

The following sections contain graphic surgical pictures that may not be appropriate for all ages.

You can visualize the Y shaped staples that are holding the skin together at the top. They are not holding at the bottom. The white material at the bottom where the incision is open is the tenacious pus that rabbits get when there is an infection.

Treatment

We attempted to keep the sutures in place and treat the open wound at the bottom. We thoroughly flushed the wound under the staples and trimmed off diseased tissue. after one week of this therapy the infection got worse so we had to remove all the staples and treat this infection as an open wound.

This is the wound immediately after we removed the staples and removed the dead tissue along with infection. It is impossible to remove all the infection that is present due to the tenacious nature of rabbit pus.

A special wound healing agent containing collagen was used to aid the healing process. It draws infection out of the contaminated area and sets up an environment for healthy tissue to start covering the opening.

The wound is thoroughly covered with this collagen and allowed to stay on for several days initially. It was changed several times over the several weeks of therapy that was used in this case.

It is bandaged to keep it in place and to protect the healing tissue.

Outcome

This rabbit healed fine, which is not always the case with such a serious wound. From the time he was brought in to us until this picture was taken was 5 weeks.

Here is Roger’s read end on his last recheck. He feels a lot better now that his fanny is not so exposed.

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Neuter – Rabbit

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Male rabbits are neutered for a variety of reasons. It helps minimize fighting behavior, makes it impossible to impregnate females, and prevents testicular cancer.

At the Long Beach Animal Hospital use of the laster is mandatory for all neuters. In this page we will first show you the surgery using the laser, then the traditional way this surgery is performed without the laser. The advantages of using the laser will be obvious. Our rabbit patients appreciate the fact that after surgery there is negligible pain, swelling, and inflammation.

Sometimes people get a jaded mindset when it comes to routine surgeries like neuters, that are performed by the thousands, especially at low cost spay and neuter clinics. It is a major surgery, and we treat it as such at the Long Beach Animal Hospital, which you will learn about in this page.

Several days prior to any surgery please bring in your pet for a preanesthetic exam and blood panel to confirm your pet is ready for anesthesia. At that time one of our doctors will go over any questions you have.

On the day of surgery we need your bunny in the hospital between 7:30 AM and 8 AM. Do not give your bunny anything to eat or drink the morning of surgery.

Our surgeon will call you after the surgery is complete and your bunny is awake. It can go home in the late afternoon the day of surgery unless instructed otherwise. Please call our office at 4 PM for pickup time, you will be given written post operative instructions then. We are open in the evening if you need to pick up later.

Graphic photos and videos on this page

The reason this male rabbit has one testicle substantially larger than the other is due to cancer. Removal of this testicle is needed for treatment. If this pet had been neutered at a young age this problem would not have occurred.

This area contains graphic pictures of an actual spay performed at the hospital. It may not be suitable for all ages

Preparation

When the rabbit’s pre-anesthetic blood panel and physical exam are completed, it is anesthetized and brought into surgery.

We keep a close tab on important physiologic parameters for all of our surgeries. Monitors like this give us an early warning of an impending problem.

Surgery-Monitor

Once our surgeon has scrubbed up and is  in sterile gown, gloves, and mask, the surgery begins

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Surgery

These are the normal testicles of a rabbit about to undergo a neuter. The hair has been clipped on the abdomen and the surgical site has been cleaned. The arrowpoints towards the head.

We use the laser for all or our neuters. It has significant advatanges over the scalpel blade. In this picture our doctor is just starting the laser incision.

With the laser there is no bleeding and much less post-operative pain and swelling. You can see the testicle appearing on the left where the scrotum has been incised by the laser.

This short video shows this initial incision and lack of bleeding

After the testicle is gently pulled out of the scrotum it is ligated with 2 sutures before it is cut off. You can see the first suture at the bottom (arrow). Again, note the lack of bleeding.

Instead of sutures we seal the scrotum with a special adhesive. This minimizes surgical time, there is no post-operative discomfort or itchiness from sutures, and you do not need to return for suture removal.

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After every routine surgery in our hospital we use our companion laser to aid in the healing process and to make them more comfortable

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We have much more information about laser surgery.

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Pasteurella – Rabbit

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Pasteurella (snuffles) is a common cause of respiratory disease in rabbits. Most rabbits are exposed to it and harbor the organism that causes it. In can become a chronic problem that is difficult to control.

This disease and GI stasis are some of the more common problems we encounter in rabbits. Please also read our GI Stasis page also for an understanding of this problem and for proper diet for a rabbit.

This page contains graphic pictures of rabbits with severe infections- it might not be appropriate viewing for all ages.

Cause

The bacteria that causes this disease is called Pasteurella multocida. This bacteria has several strains that differ in their ability to cause problems. Most rabbits are exposed to this bacteria at some time in their lives. Some of them will show symptoms only when stressed. These carriers can spread the problem to other rabbits without any symptoms of their own. This can make control difficult.

Pasteurella is spread by mating, through general contact (especially respiratory), or through wounds from fighting.

Symptoms

Symptoms depend on the strength (virulence) of the specific Pasteurella strain involved, which body organ(s) are involved and how long the disease is present. One of the most common symptoms is respiratory, usually manifested as a nasal discharge. When a rabbit wipes its front paws on its nose to remove the discharge the hair on the legs becomes matted. These are the symptoms that lead to the laymen’s name for this disease, snuffles.

Sometimes the nasal discharge is so chronic that the fur is actually missing.

Other respiratory signs of Pasteurella include sneezing, congestion, and conjunctivitis. The tear ducts (lacrimal ducts) can become clogged with dried discharge, causing excess tearing and subsequent scalding of the skin around the eyes and face.

This is an example of how we flush the tear duct. They eye has been given a local anesthetic, and we are using a catheter to gently flush a saline solution into the tear duct.

In some cases Pasteurella can localize in the eye and cause complete loss of function. This eye has to be removed, since the rabbit cannot see, and it is painful. The white area in the center of the eye is the infection.

In addition to the respiratory tract, the bacteria can also infect the reproductive tract, the sinuses, the eyes, the ears, and the internal organs. It sometimes causes abscesses under the skin. These abscesses can become chronic and require surgery to correct. Severe cases can cause central nervous system symptoms like oscillations of the eyes (nystagmus), circling to one side, and severe tilting (wry neck or torticollis) of the head.

This rabbit has a neurologic problem from Pasteurella

Rabbits with ear infections might paw at the ears and those with internal organ infections might have poor appetites and lose weight. If the reproductive tract is infected discharge is commonly noted.

The following sections contain graphic surgical pictures, and may not be appropriate for everyone.

This is a healthy uterus during a routine spay (OVH). The healthy pink uterine horns are easily seen (white arrow).

The arrows point to the typical appearance of a uterus infected with Pasteurella. Cancer can also look like this.

Diagnosis

This problem is so prevalent, and the symptoms so characteristic, that Pasteurella is part of the tentative diagnosis anytime a rabbit shows the above symptoms.

During the physical exam a fever might be present along with an increase in the sounds heard in the lungs with the stethoscope. Cultures can be performed to confirm that Pasteurella Multocida is indeed present. Rabbits with a negative culture result could still be harboring Pasteurella. Blood samples are commonly used along with x-rays. X-rays might show changes in the chest or infection in the middle ear.

The arrows below mark the typical abscesses (the round white areas) that can be seen in the chest of a rabbit with Pasteurella.

This is what these lungs could look like on an autopsy. All the white spots correspond to the white spots on the radiograph above.

Treatment

Most cases are treated with antibiotics. They sometimes need to be given for weeks or months. The majority of cases brought for treatment are chronic in nature. In these situations the bacteria has had time to become well entrenched, and there is no guarantee that antibiotics will work. If they do work the problem can recur when the antibiotics are stopped. This emphasizes the need for routine exams in general (every 6-12 months), and a physical exam any time the above symptoms are noted.

Other medications are used if your pet is showing central nervous system or ocular symptoms. Pets that are circling or are wry necked might respond to oral medication to make them more comfortable. Plugged tear ducts are flushed and conjunctivitis is treated with antibiotic drops.

Abscesses are treated surgically. Rabbits have a very thick and tenacious discharge when they form an abscess, and require more care than the abscesses of most other animals. Surgical removal can be difficult, especially in the chronic cases, because the abscessed area can become extensive in nature. Multiple surgeries might be needed, and wound care at home is necessary.

This is a severe abscess on the back of a rabbit that has been anesthetized and is undergoing surgery to correct its problem. The wound has just been opened by the scalpel blade at the top left of the screen (arrow).

The wound is filled with pus (the correct word is purulent) that must be completely removed. Any infection that is not removed will cause the abscess to return. It is very thick and does not lend itself to easy removal.

The underlying tissue that has been exposed to this infection has to be removed also. It is diseased and will be a source of further infection if it is not completely removed.

This is the final appearance of the wound after all the purulent material and diseased tissue has been removed after 30 minutes of surgery. The rubber tube (arrows) running from top to bottom is called a penrose drain tube. Its function is to allow further drainage of the infection. The tube will be removed in 5 days, the sutures will be removed in 10 days.

Some pasteurella abscesses are chronic in nature, and contain more dead tissue than purulent material. The following pictures show a case of a rabbit referred to us that had been treated with routine drainage and antibiotics for several weeks. The purulent material on the inside was diminished, but the tissue that remained was either dead or dying and had to be surgically removed.

This is the face of the rabbit that is laying on its left side. Its mouth is towards the right, the white arrow points to its right eye. The abscess is the large circlular area below and to the left of the eye.

The diseased tissue (black arrow) is gently dissected away from the healthy tissue. The healthy jaw muscle (white arrow) is apparent .

The dissection has been completed. All that remains is healthy tissue that will be sutured back together.

A large incision had to be made to remove all of this diseased tissue. It extends from the base of the ear all the way under the chin. These sutures will be removed in 10-14 days.

Prevention

Most rabbits are exposed to this bacteria early in life. Determining which rabbits will develop symptoms of this problem is difficult. Minimizing stress (heat, overcrowding), proper diet (high in timoth hay, minimal pellets), a clean environment, fresh drinking water at all times, along with early neutering can help in minimizing the chance of this infection.

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Rabbit Teeth Conditions

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Rabbit teeth grow continuously throughout their lives. Normal chewing action wears them down just to the point that they don’t overgrow. This is one of the reasons it is important to feed your rabbit a high fiber diet.

A rabbit that has a malocclusion does not have this normal wearing action and can suffer overgrown teeth. This problem can be serious enough to inhibit the ability to eat. Most rabbits do fine if their teeth are trimmed periodically. On select cases we will remove the problem teeth.

Before we begin click here to see an x-ray of a rabbits mouth to view incisors and molars. Come back here after you have reviewed rabbit tooth anatomy.

Treatment

In most rabbits trimming the teeth periodically works fine. They have sensitive teeth that can easily crack, so it’s not a good isea to do this at home unless you are very experienced.

This patient has overgrown lower incisors. They are definitely inhibiting its ability to chew. They need periodic trimming every 2-4 weeks to prevent recurrence.

They are trimmed with a special scissors that will not crack them. If needed, they are also filed to remove any sharp edges. This technique should not be tried by inexperienced people because teeth are brittle in nature, and in this case are weaker than normal due to the abnormality. They can easily fracture because of these two factors. In addition, rabbits can fracture their back if not properly restrained.

Even though the upper incisors are not as long as the lower, they also need trimming because they are growing into the lower jaw

Our friend feels much better, and can now get back to normal rabbit activity. He needs to return in 2-4 weeks to have his teeth checked.

This rabbit has an upper right incisor (arrow) that has been chronically infected. We decided to remove the incisors because trimming the teeth was not solving the problem.

The arrow points to the cracked and infected tooth

As you saw from the x-ray pictures the roots of these incisors are very deep and they curve significantly. Great care must be taken during their removal so they don’t crack at the root.

In this picture we are gently breaking down the attachment of the tooth to the gums.

This is the appearance immediately after surgery

The molar teeth can also be overgrown, and will get points on them. The points are painful, dig into the gums or tongue, and can prevent eating. Molar teeth are not easy to assess. Rabbits don’t like anything in their mouths, and the folds of skin of the cheeks interfere with visualization. These teeth are gently filed down under anesthesia. Feeding a high fiber diet might help prevent this problem.

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We use proper restraint, gas anesthesia, and a gentle speculum, to carefully visualize the molar teeth before filing

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You can see the point on this molar tooth

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After trimming. The rough edges will be smoothe off.

In some rabbits the problem is much more serious than overgrown and unsightly incisors. These rabbits have severe problems with their molar teeth, preventing them from eating properly. If untreated they can die. A large part of their problem is a diet that is too low in fiber. This causes improper wearing down of the molars, and even can lead to elongation of the roots of the incisors.

Rabbits with this problem are not eating well, losing weight, and are slobbering. Looking into a rabbits mouth is not the easiest thing in the world to do. Not only do they find it distasteful, but their skin folds make it near impossible to visualize the teeth without anesthesia and proper instruments.

When the molar teeth don’t wear down properly they develop points that pinch the gums and make chewing painful. These rabbits are treated by filing the molars down until they become smooth, and instituting a higher fiber diet. In some cases the chronic molar problem causes the roots to elongate. This is a serious problem, that can lead to abscesses, pain, inability to eat, and even death.

This is a picture of Mike. He has overgrown molar roots that we will be removing. His IV catheter is giving him fluids just prior to anesthesia.

Putting an IV catheter in a rabbit takes special skill from our nursing staff. You can learn more about catheters if you like by following the IV catheter link.

Before you attempt to treat one of these rabbits you need instruments enabling proper exposure of the teeth.

These rabbits need complete anesthesia for proper treatment. We use a very safe gas anesthesia and usually intubate for an additional margin of safety. The arrow points to the beginning of the breathing tube as it enters the mouth from the left. You can trace it as it courses down and to the right.

We diagnosed Mike’s problems partially by a history of weight loss and poor appetite, along with excessive salivation.You can see the chronic irritation the saliva has caused on his chin.

A radiograph was also helpful in the diagnosis. The arrow points to the elongation of the roots of the molar teeth. Compare it to the rabbit below with normal molar roots.

These roots are normal. The arrow on the left points to the incisors, the one below points to the molars. Can you see the difference in the molars from the abnormal rabbit above.

Now that Mike is finally anesthetized we can gain access to his molar teeth. The white arrow points to one of them deep in his oral cavity.

These are the teeth immediately after removal. The roots are on the bottom.

A closeup of one of them shows the infection around the root (on the right).

Unfortunately, Mike had more than teeth problems. He had abscesses in his eye and on his tongue caused by Pasteurella. The arrow points to the ulcer he has on the tip of his tongue.

Prevention

One of the most important things you can do to keep your rabbit’s teeth healthy is to feed a high fiber diet. This consists of mostly timothy hay or timothy hay pellets.

Regular exams by one of our doctors will also catch this problem before teeth get infected or your rabbit becomes ill.

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